A preliminary study of the effects of facebook addiction to the relationship of the students to their immediate families...
(DIS)CONNECTED A Study on the Effects of Facebook Addiction to Relationship within the Immediate Family
Elejorde, Hazel S. Gamaro, Dale Giordan M. Hernandez, Nieva A. Reyes, Janella M. Villegas, Mark Lawrence
ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY MFI – TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE
Table of Contents Title Page
Table of Contents
I. A. B. C.
INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Statement of the Problem and Objectives Significance of the Study
1 1 2 2
II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A. History of Facebook
B. Facebook Addiction Symptoms
C. The Effects of Facebook in Family Relationships
D. Facebook Addiction Test
E. Definition of Terms
A. Research Design and Methods
B. Concepts and Measures
C. Research Instrument
C.2 Focus Interview Guide
A. Background of the Study Facebook nowadays is a cultural phenomenon stretching across the globe. It has taken hold as undisputable leader among social networking sites. (TopTenREVIEWS, 2011) According to the SocialBakers, a social media statistics site, Philippines is the fifth largest country on Facebook with 26 249 780 users as of September 5, 2011 and that is 26.28% of the whole Philippine population. This illustrates the fast growing number of Facebook users in the Philippines with 122% growth since January 2010. According to Social Media Hub Notes, a site on social networking, social media and guides, Facebook is facing a problem concerning to the addiction of their users to the site. Social networking site like Facebook is good in connecting all friends and families worldwide. On the other hand, Dr. Laura Schlessinger said that social networking and cyber technology are having a negative effect on the family structure. Dr. Laura believes that social networking has replaced the intimate interactions. (Moore, 2009) Other experts believe that cyber technology is hindering the ability of our children to develop social skills, and nurture interpersonal relationships. Facebook Addiction Disorder (FAD) is becoming a serious problem. (Judy, 2011) However, despite of all the convenience that Facebook brings, there are still studies that prove too much use of the said social networking site could cause addiction to it. According to Dr. Michael Fenichel, a clinical and school psychologist, Facebook Addiction Disorder (FAD) is a situation in which Facebook usage overtakes daily activities like waking up, using the telephone, or checking e-mail. Today, people determine the level of addiction through the Facebook Addiction Test (FAT). It is the first validated and reliable measure of addictive use of the Facebook. In order to determine if the students of MFI are already suffering from Facebook addiction, students will undergo Facebook Addiction Test. This would also determine their level of addiction. The researchers believe that the higher the level of addiction the student has, the greater the effects it would have in the relationship with the immediate family. These students will be the priority in the focus interview. B. Statement of the Problem and Objectives
The study focuses on the effects of Facebook Addiction to the immediate family relationship of MFI students. In order to answer the problem, the researchers come up with the following objectives: 1. To construct a profile on MFI students who are suffering from Facebook addiction 2. To know and describe the current relationship of MFI Facebook addict students to their immediate families 3. To find out the effects of Facebook addiction in terms of their relationship to their immediate families C. Significance of the Study Facebook has great influence in our lives. It helps people communicate faster and easier, develop social involvement, and gives faster access to the latest news. However, people who frequently use the said social networking site may suffer from Facebook addiction. Due to the occurrence of Facebook addiction, the researchers find it necessary to know the signs and symptoms of Facebook addiction and how it affects MFI students’ relationship with their immediate families. The results that will be obtained from this study will help the Facebook addict students to know that they are already suffering from Facebook addiction so that they can seek solution to their addiction. The results may also contribute to the current knowledge of the readers about the different effects of Facebook addiction to their family relationship.
II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A. HISTORY OF FACEBOOK In his article, “Brief history of Facebook”, John Hewitt stated that Facebook went from an idea in Harvard student Mark Zuckerberg's mind in 2004 into a full-fledged international phenomenon in a short couple of years. When Zuckerberg launched Facebook, it was only open to Harvard students at first. The tremendous popularity of the site - which, if you've been living under a rock the past several years, allows you to post a personal profile and connect with friends online - was not something that anyone could have predicted, and it was soon opened to a national audience. By the end of the year, it was opened to anyone with a .edu email address. By 2005, it was opened to High School students, and in the following year to anyone with a valid email address over the age of 13. When it began, Facebook only had some very basic features - you could post photos, include profile details and contact information. In the college social environment in which it gestated, Facebook created many connections between users very rapidly. Undergraduates generally meet huge numbers of people in a very short period of time, so a tool like Facebook was something that fulfilled a substantial and unmet demand among collegiate. (Hewitt, 2008) As the application has developed and spread among people outside the university environment, it has become more of an important tool for professional networking. In the earlier days of Facebook, it was unfamiliar to most employers. As more of the people who went through college using it have entered the workplace, it has become an informal way for co-workers to connect with each other and for people looking for work to remain connected with other professionals in the same field. (Hewitt, 2008) B. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF FACEBOOK ADDICTION Facebook has been criticized for many things, but mostly for being a source of destruction that can turn Facebook users into real social networking addicts. Stalking people, hacking into accounts, getting too much involved with unknown people and being deprived from real life are some of the broadly recognized negative effects of Facebook (Pomoni, 2009).
Psychologist Dr. Michael Fenichel, who has published numerous writings on FAD online, describes it as a situation in which Facebook usage “overtakes” daily activities like waking up, getting dressed, using the telephone, or checking e-mail. According to Joanna Lipari, a clinical psychologist at the University of California, Los Angeles who was interviewed for a CNN report, here are some signs that you are addicted to Facebook: 1. You lose sleep over Facebook. When using Facebook becomes a compulsion and you spend entire nights logged on to the site, causing you to become tired the next day. 2. You spend more than an hour a day on Facebook. Lipari said it is difficult to define how much is too much when it comes to Facebook usage, but that an average person need only spend half an hour on the site. 3. You become obsessed with old loves or exes you reconnect with on Facebook. 4. You ignore work in favor of Facebook. This means you do not do your job in order to sneak time on Facebook. 5. The thought of getting off Facebook leaves you in cold sweat. If you try going a day without Facebook and it causes you stress and anxiety, this means you need help. According to the same report by Elizabeth Cohen, Senior CNN Medical Correspondent, Facebook addiction is not yet an actual medical diagnosis. C. THE EFFECTS OF FACEBOOK ADDICTION IN FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS According to Dr. Jeffrey S. McQuillen, assistant professor of speech communication at Texas A&M University, influence of Facebook can be a hindrance to interpersonal relationships. To McQuillen, the advent of the Facebook has made the world smaller in terms of global interaction, but wider in terms of one-on-one relationships. He believes the more children are left to themselves and the Internet, the less likely we are to see familial interdependence.
Many parents have noticed their children becoming more separated from their family, and much more attached to their computer. In addition, there are times when the one-on-one communication between the families falls through the cracks and technology can take control. You should know that you and your children have a problem when it affects how much you see each other, or speak. You don't want to lose relationships with your child just because of Facebook (Money, 2011). According to a recent Nielsen poll, in the month of August, internet users spent 17% of their surfing time on social networking and blogging sites. That number is almost triple what it was at the same time last year. The Pew Internet Project reported that 93% of American children between the ages of 12-17 use the internet. Of those users, 55% have social networking profiles on various social and blogging sites. With so much emphasis being placed on social networking and with so much time being spent using these sites, how is the interaction of the American family being affected? According to experts like Dr. Laura Schlessinger, social networking and cyber technology are having a negative effect on the family structure. Dr. Laura as she is known to her many fans, believes that social networking has replaced the intimate interactions which use to occur within most American families. She believes that our young teens are most affected by the growing trend. Dr. Laura believes that while social networking is not bad in itself, allowing the cyber relationships to replace true family interaction is dangerous. Other experts believe that cyber technology is hindering the ability of our children to develop social skills, and nurture interpersonal relationships. Family conversations have been replaced by texting sessions. Family activity time has given way to countless hours of intenet surfing, and as a result families do not enjoy the special bond that comes from intimate interaction with those who are closest to us. (Moore, 2009) In a 2003 research review titled, The Internet and Social Life, (Bargh, John & McKenna, Katelyn, The Annual Review of Psychology, July 2003), Bargh and McKenna note that some scholars feel the internet provides a positive venue for social interaction that allows individuals and groups to connect in ways they would not otherwise.
Others however, feel the internet creates a sterile and negative form of social exchange and communication which in turn could lead to the crumbling of community and society. Early research by Kraut (1998) and Nie & Ebring (2000, Nie 2001) found that internet usage leads to an increase in depression, loneliness, and neglect of existing close relationships. Yet, nearly all subsequent research, including a follow-up by Kraut (2002), led to opposite conclusions. In his later research, Kraut found that study participants who used the internet were more likely to have an increase in:
The size of their local and distant social circles
Their face-to-face interaction with friends and family
Community activity involvement
Trust in people Many national studies found that internet users were not less likely to visit or call friends
and that they actually have larger social networks (DiMaggio et. al. 2001). Howard, et al (2001) concluded from their large random-sample study, "The internet allows people to stay in touch with family and friends, and, in many cases, extend their social networks. These survey results suggest that on-line tools are more likely to extend social contact than detract from it." While Nie suggested in 2001 that people who spend more than the average of 10 hours a week on the internet would socialize substantially less with family, friends and neighbors, in Nie and Ebring's 2000 study the results showed that heavy internet users were actually watching less television and reading newspapers, not socializing less often. In his article on [email protected]
, May 2009, Facebook : Good or Bad for Communication, Guy Lecky-Thompson Facebook was created to have a positive impact in person to person communication, studies show that it could have a detrimental effect.
Facebook started out as a way for likeminded students to share their life experiences and stay in touch. But are social networking sites enabling interaction or reducing it to a escapist experience, displacing real interaction in favour of an alternative reality? (Thompson, 2009) Thompson (2009) also stated that Social networking can enrich social lives for those separated from family and friends by long distances, bringing them together despite the physical separation. It also provides those isolated by disability or environment with a rich and fulfilling social life. For anyone who is unable to leave their own house, social networking has provided a great way to get in touch with people who have similar issues, as well as allowing them to stay in touch with existing networks of friends. Electronic interaction displaces the social interaction, keeping people apart – it is so convenient that people lack the drive to actually interact face to face. Mass electronic communication may lead to a lower quality of social interaction due to the sheer number of participants. (Thompson, 2009) D. FACEBOOK ADDICTION TEST The Facebook Addiction Test (FAT) is the first validated and reliable measure of addictive use of the Facebook. FAT is a 20-item questionnaire that measures mild, moderate, and severe levels of Facebook Addiction. To assess your level of addiction, answer the following questions using this scale: 1 = Rarely. 2 = Occasionally. 3 = Frequently. 4 = Often. 5 = Always. 0 = Does Not Apply 1. How often do you find that you stay on Facebook longer than you intended? 2. How often do you neglect household chores to spend more time on Facebook? 3. How often do you prefer the excitement of the Facebook to intimacy with your partner?
4. How often do you form new relationships with fellow Facebook users? 5. How often do others in your life complain to you about the amount of time you spend Facebook? 6. How often do your grades or school works suffer because of the amount of time you spend on Facebook? 7. How often do you check your e-mail before something else that you need to do? 8. How often does your job performance or productivity suffer because of Facebook? 9. How often do you become defensive or secretive when anyone asks you what you do on Facebook? 10. How often do you block out disturbing thoughts about your life with soothing thoughts of the Facebook? 11. How often do you find yourself anticipating when you will go on Facebook again? 12. How often do you fear that life without Facebook would be boring, empty, and joyless? 13. How often do you snap, yell, or act annoyed if someone bothers you while you are Facebook? 14. How often do you lose sleep due to late-night log-ins? 15. How often do you feel preoccupied with the Facebook when off-line, or fantasize about being on Facebook? 16. How often do you find yourself saying "just a few more minutes" when on Facebook? 17. How often do you try to cut down the amount of time you spend Facebook and fail? 18. How often do you try to hide how long you've been on Facebook? 19. How often do you choose to spend more time Facebook over going out with others? 20. How often do you feel depressed, moody or nervous when you are off-line, which goes away once you are back on Facebook? Your Score: Results: After you've answered all the questions, add the numbers you selected for each response to obtain a final score. The higher your score, the greater your level of addiction and the problems your Facebook usage causes. Here's a general scale to help measure your score:
20 - 49 points: You are an average Facebook user. You may surf Facebook a bit too long at times, but you have control over your usage. 50 -79 points: You are experiencing occasional or frequent problems because of Facebook. You should consider their full impact on your life. 80 - 100 points: Your Facebook usage is causing significant problems in your life. You should evaluate the impact of Facebook on your life and address the problems directly caused by your Facebook usage. E. DEFINITION OF TERMS 1. Facebook Addiction Disorder – as a situation in which Facebook usage “overtakes” daily activities like waking up, getting dressed, using the telephone, or checking e-mail. 2. Facebook Addiction Test – The first validated and reliable measure of addictive use of the Facebook. It is a 20-item questionnaire that measures mild, moderate, and severe levels of Facebook Addiction. 3. Immediate Family - A person's smallest family unit, consisting of the closest relatives, such as parents, siblings and children. 4. Profile – Use to describe the respondents by determining his name, age, gender, year level, place of residence.
III. METHODOLOGY A. Research Design and Methods Since the study primarily looks into the effects of Facebook addiction to MFI students with their family relationships, the researchers will use the qualitative method such as focus interview. The instruments that will be used for the study are questionnaire and interview guide. The researchers will select the MFI students who are suffering from Facebook addiction through the two-page questionnaire. It is composed of statements that were derived from on the Facebook Addiction Test (FAT) - the first validated and reliable measure of addictive use of the Facebook. FAT is a 20-item questionnaire that measures mild, moderate, and severe levels of Facebook Addiction. Respondents who will have the higher level of addiction will be the candidates for focus interview. To be able to know and describe the current relationship of MFI Facebook addict students to their immediate family, the focus interview will be provided to the selected respondents. Open ended questions will be provided for the respondents. The interviews and discussions followed an unstructured format based on the objectives outlined in this study. This was to generate deeper insights and explanations from the informants and discussants. B. Concepts and Measures Concepts
Effects of Facebook Addiction to the Family Background Information
Measures This will be measured through the respondent’s answer in Facebook Addiction Test (FAT) FAT is the first validated and reliable measure of addictive use of the Facebook. FAT is a 20-item questionnaire that measures mild, moderate, and severe levels of Facebook Addiction. This will be evaluated through the series of questions in the focus interview. Open ended questions will be provided to the respondents to fully assess the effects of Facebook addiction in their family relationships This will be determined by name, age, gender, year level, place of residence of the respondent
C. Research Instrument C.1 QUESTIONNAIRE ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY
MFI Technological Institute Good day! I am [surveyor’s name], 2 nd year Electrical Technology student of MFI – Technological Institute. As part of our requirements in Technical English III, we are conducting a study on the Effects of Facebook Addiction to Relationship within the Immediate Family. In order for us to fully understand the topic, we would like to ask for your participation and cooperation in this study. This would only take you 5 minutes to finish answering this. All information that you will provide in this survey will be kept confidential. Thank you.
Name: Age: Address:
Yr. and Section: Gender:
1. Do you have Facebook account? ___Yes ___No (Please do not continue answering this) Below are series of statements that were derived from the questions in Facebook Addiction Test (FAT). FAT is a 20-item questionnaire that measures mild, moderate, and severe levels of Facebook Addiction. To assess your level of addiction, please put a check mark to rate how often these statements happen to you. Use the following guidelines: 1= Rarely
4 = Often.
2 = Occasionally
5 = Always
3 = Frequently
(DNA)Does Not Apply
5 4 3 2 1 DNA 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
I find to stay on Facebook longer than I intended. I neglect household chores to spend more time on Facebook. I prefer the excitement of the Facebook to intimacy with my partner. I form new relationships with fellow Facebook users. People in my life complain about the amount of time I spend Facebook. 5 4 3 2 1 DNA
6. My grades or school works suffer because of the amount of time I
7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.
spend on Facebook. I check my e-mail before something else that I need to do. My job performance or productivity suffers because of Facebook. I become defensive or secretive when anyone asks me what I do on Facebook. I block out disturbing thoughts about my life with soothing thoughts of the Facebook. I find myself anticipating when I will go on Facebook again. I fear that life without Facebook would be boring, empty, and joyless. I snap, yell, or act annoyed if someone bothers me while I’m on Facebook. I lose sleep due to late-night log-ins. I feel preoccupied with the Facebook when off-line, or fantasize about being on Facebook. I find myself saying "just a few more minutes" when on Facebook. I try to cut down the amount of time I spend Facebook and fail. I try to hide how long I've been on Facebook. I choose to spend more time Facebook over going out with others. I feel depressed, moody or nervous when I’m off-line, which goes away once I’m are back on Facebook.
Are you willing to have a one-on-one interview, if in case we found out that you are on the high level of Facebook addiction? ___Yes
Thank you for your cooperation. ____________________ Signature Date: _____________
C.2 FOCUS INTERVIEW GUIDE 1. Why do you use Facebook? 2. How many times a day do you go on Facebook? 3. What is the most useful thing about Facebook? 4. Do you have an immediate family member in abroad? 5. Does Facebook help you to communicate with them? 6. How about the other immediate family member? Do you have more time with them than using Facebook? 7. Does Facebook affects your relationship with the immediate family member? How? 8. What makes you addicted to Facebook? 9. How does your family reacts on your addiction? 10. How do you find Facebook? What are its effects on you? (in terms of immediate family relationship)
BIBLIOGRAPHY http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/. Lifestyle (Are You a Facebook Addict), October 20, 2009. http://www.theborneopost.com/. Marcel Jude Joceph(DO you have Facebook Addiction
Disorder), february 21,2011,Monday. http://www.brighthud.com/ofice/collaboration/articles/13477.aspx. John Hewitt, October 31.2008. http://www.examiner.com/everyday-people-in-oklahoma-city/social-networking-sites-and-theeffects-on-family-interaction John Moore, October 18,2009. http://www.suite101.com/content/social-networking-sites-beneficial-or-dysfunctional-a236325. Cathy Herold,May 14,2010. http://www.suite101.com/content/internet-anti-social-behavior-theory-unfounded-a111897. Laura Owens, April 23,2009. http://www.socialhubnotes.com/facebook-syndrome-facebook-addiction-disorder. Judy, July 9,2011.