5309 - btec first unit 1 learner companion

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ICT | PEARSON BTEC FIRST (LEVEL 1/2)

Level 1/2 BTEC in Information Creative Technology

Learner Companion Unit 1: The Online World

BTE C

Next Generation

POD 5309

[email protected] zigzageducation.co.uk

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Contents Thank You for Choosing ZigZag Education ................................................................................................... iii Teacher Feedback Opportunity ....................................................................................................................... iv Terms and Conditions of Use ........................................................................................................................... v Teacher’s Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 1 A. Online Services and Communication .......................................................................................................... 2 1. Online Services........................................................................................................................................... 2 1.1. Communication Methods ..................................................................................................................... 4 1.2. Real-Time Information ......................................................................................................................... 6 1.3. Commerce........................................................................................................................................... 7 1.4. Government ...................................................................................................................................... 10 1.5. Education .......................................................................................................................................... 11 1.6. Business ........................................................................................................................................... 11 1.7. Entertainment .................................................................................................................................... 12 1.8. Online Advertisements ...................................................................................................................... 15 1.9. Online Data Storage .......................................................................................................................... 16 2. Online Documents .................................................................................................................................... 17 2.1. Online Software ................................................................................................................................. 18 2.2. Controls............................................................................................................................................. 19 3. Online Communication.............................................................................................................................. 21 3.1. Social Media...................................................................................................................................... 21 3.2. Online Communities and Social Networks ......................................................................................... 22 3.3. Real-Time Communication ................................................................................................................ 24 3.4. Implications of Online Communication............................................................................................... 25 3.5. Cloud Computing and Storage .......................................................................................................... 26 3.6. Ubiquitous Computing ....................................................................................................................... 27 Activity 1 – Learning Aim A ........................................................................................................................... 28 Activity 2 – Learning Aim A ........................................................................................................................... 29 B. The Internet and the Exchange and Storage of Information by Digital Devices ..................................... 30 1. The Internet .............................................................................................................................................. 30 1.1. Internet Service Providers (ISPs) ...................................................................................................... 31 1.2. Internet Infrastructure ........................................................................................................................ 31 1.3. Internet Connections ......................................................................................................................... 32 1.4. Internet Protocols .............................................................................................................................. 34 1.5. Data Transmission and Bandwidth .................................................................................................... 34 2. World Wide Web ....................................................................................................................................... 34 2.1. Web Browsers ................................................................................................................................... 34 2.2. Web Servers ..................................................................................................................................... 35 2.3. Web Addresses (URLs) ..................................................................................................................... 35 2.4. Search Engines ................................................................................................................................. 35 2.5. Hypertext Mark-up Language ............................................................................................................ 36 2.6. Hyperlinks ......................................................................................................................................... 37 3. Email ........................................................................................................................................................ 38 3.1. Advantages of Using Email ............................................................................................................... 39 3.2. Size Restrictions................................................................................................................................ 39 3.3. Email and Webmail ........................................................................................................................... 39 3.4. Store and Forward............................................................................................................................. 40 3.5. Email Protocols ................................................................................................................................. 40 -i-

4. Data Exchange ......................................................................................................................................... 41 4.1. What is a Network? ........................................................................................................................... 41 4.2. Network Components ........................................................................................................................ 44 4.3. Web Servers ..................................................................................................................................... 45 4.4. Transmission Modes ......................................................................................................................... 45 4.5. Real-Time Communication ................................................................................................................ 46 4.6. Sending Data .................................................................................................................................... 46 4.7. Alternative Transmission Methods ..................................................................................................... 47 5. Data Storage ............................................................................................................................................ 48 5.1. What is a Database? ......................................................................................................................... 48 5.2. Database Structure ........................................................................................................................... 49 5.3. Database Operation .......................................................................................................................... 50 5.4. Database Management Systems ....................................................................................................... 50 5.5. Structured Query Language .............................................................................................................. 51 5.6. Data Storage Media .......................................................................................................................... 51 Activity 1 – Learning Aim B ........................................................................................................................... 53 Activity 2 – Learning Aim B ........................................................................................................................... 54 C. Issues with Operating Online..................................................................................................................... 55 1. Online Issues ............................................................................................................................................ 55 1.1. Threats to Data ................................................................................................................................. 56 1.2. Security Measures............................................................................................................................. 57 1.3. Backing Up Data ............................................................................................................................... 61 1.4. Security Issues with Social Networking ............................................................................................. 64 1.5. Appropriate Use of Data .................................................................................................................... 65 1.6. Email Security and Confidentiality ..................................................................................................... 66 1.7. Identify Theft ..................................................................................................................................... 70 1.8. Privacy .............................................................................................................................................. 71 1.9. Legal Stuff ......................................................................................................................................... 73 Activity 1 – Learning Aim C ........................................................................................................................... 75 Activity 2 – Learning Aim C ........................................................................................................................... 76 Answers ........................................................................................................................................................... 77

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5309

ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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Terms and Conditions of Use Terms and Conditions Please note that the Terms and Conditions of this resource include point 5.3, which states: “You acknowledge that you rely on your own skill and judgement in determining the suitability of the Goods for any particular purpose.” “We do not warrant: that any of the Goods are suitable for any particular purpose (e.g. any particular qualification), or the results that may be obtained from the use of any publication, or expected exam grades, or that we are affiliated with any educational institution, or that any publication is authorised by, associated with, sponsored by or endorsed by any educational institution.” Copyright Information Every effort is made to ensure that the information provided in this publication is accurate and up to date but no legal responsibility is accepted for any errors, omissions or misleading statements. It is ZigZag Education’s policy to obtain permission for any copyright material in their publications. The publishers will be glad to make suitable arrangements with any copyright holders whom it has not been possible to contact. Students and teachers may not use any material or content contained herein and incorporate it into a body of work without referencing/acknowledging the source of the material (“Plagiarism”). Disclaimers This publication is designed to supplement teaching only. Practice questions may be designed to follow the content of a specification and may also attempt to prepare students for the type of questions they will meet in the examination, but will not attempt to predict future examination questions. ZigZag Education do not make any warranty as to the results that may be obtained from the use of this publication, or as to the accuracy, reliability or content of the publication. Where the teacher uses any of the material from this resource to support examinations or similar then the teacher must ensure that they are happy with the level of information and support provided pertaining to their personal point of view and to the constraints of the specification and to others involved in the delivery of the course. It is considered essential that the teacher adapt, extend and/or censor any parts of the contained material to suit their needs, the needs of the specification and the needs of the individual or group concerned. As such, the teacher must determine which parts of the material, if any, to provide to the students and which parts to use as background information for themselves. Likewise, the teacher must determine what additional material is required to cover all points on the specification and to cover each specification point to the correct depth. Different teachers, Heads of Departments and Moderators have different personal views on what information and support to provide an individual or group for a given specification and when to provide this. Different specifications and modules require different levels of support or differing amounts of information to be provided, or they prohibit information or support to be given to a student above a certain level. For very high level work no support or information may be appropriate or a required feature of the module. ZigZag Education is not affiliated with Pearson, Edexcel, OCR, AQA, WJEC, CEA, International Baccalaureate Organization or DFE in any way nor is this publication authorised by, associated with, sponsored by or endorsed by these institutions unless explicitly stated on the front cover of this publication. Links to other websites, and contextual links are provided where appropriate in ZigZag Education publications. ZigZag Education is not responsible for information on sites that it does not manage, nor can we guarantee, represent or warrant that the content contained in the sites is accurate, legal and inoffensive, nor should a website address or the inclusion of a hyperlink be taken to mean endorsement by ZigZag Education of the site to which it points. This includes websites that users are directed to via the convenient ZZed.co.uk short URLs. -v-

Teacher’s Introduction This companion has been written specifically for the Level 1/2 BTEC in ICT qualification (for first teaching September 2012). The theory notes, questions and activity worksheets cover the essential knowledge and understanding listed in the BTEC Unit 1 specification. Note: Much of the base information needed to answer the questions can be found in the companion, although the learner may be required to carry out additional research for some questions.

About Unit 1: The Online World Unit 1 is one of two units that learners must choose between – the other being Unit 2 – as part of their Award, Certificate, Extended Certificate or Diploma. Learners must complete a 1 hour on-screen test, which is set and marked by the exam board.

Unit Introduction and Aims (from the BTEC specification) Introduction The unit provides an introduction to the modern online world. Starting with their own experiences, learners will extend their knowledge of online services and investigate the technology and software that supports them. They will learn more about a range of services including email, online data storage, collaborative software, search engines and blogging. Learners will understand the main technologies and processes behind the internet and investigate how they come together to let them view websites and send information across the world. They will explore a range of digital devices, such as smart phones and digital music players and consider the technology that enables these devices to share and exchange information. Finally, learners will investigate concerns regarding security and privacy and consider how users should behave online to safeguard themselves and respect others.

Aims In this unit learners will: A investigate online services and online communication B investigate components of the internet and how digital devices exchange and store information C investigate operating

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ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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Learning Aim A

A.

Online Services and Communication

1. Online Services Introduction Increased access to the Internet is changing the way we live, with Internet usage enabling global communication and social interaction. Information can be accessed 24/7 and wiki sites enable users to share knowledge and edit information directly from their own browsers. Increased access to the Internet has resulted in a self-service culture. Home users can access a wide variety of services and information at the click of a button. Holidays can be booked; groceries and fast food can be ordered; online banking enables users to view and manage bank accounts; goods can be purchased or sold directly or via an online auction. Technology has resulted in flexible working methods as more people work from home on a personal computer or via a laptop from remote locations using high-speed broadband connections and Wi-Fi. This can have a beneficial effect on the environment as less travel is required. File-sharing sites and virtual computing makes it easier to work from remote locations. New ways of working using technology often means that more training is required and this can be a cause of concern to some workers who are resistant to new technologies. Some companies use experts with specialist knowledge and skills from external sources rather than training existing staff. This is called outsourcing. Technology also means that users have access 24/7 to online retailers and businesses. Instant messaging is a means of communicating with other users instantly. Live chat can be used effectively in customer service by enabling a customer to talk to an advisor in real time. An offshore company operates from a different country from the one in which it is doing business. Offshoring is a cheaper way of doing business as the cost of living and wages are often cheaper in other countries.

Websites The Internet is an important part of most businesses. It is used to communicate and advertise globally, enabling businesses to access new markets and increase sales and revenue. Use of the Internet increases competiveness with 24/7 access to global websites offering goods and services. Trading over the Internet can be cheaper with lower overheads and fewer staff required and it is easier to maintain and for customers to access. A website is essential for a business to drive performance, access global markets, communicate and stay competitive. A website is used to provide an online service, such as booking tickets, to advertise, to sell directly to customers and to communicate. ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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A - Online Services and Communication

A good website will have a strong online presence that can be easily found by search engine queries. Websites also keep people in touch around the world via social networks. Charities use websites to provide information and to attract members and encourage donations. The government uses the Internet to create websites that provide information to the public, such as local council information.

Online Living (e-Citizens) Online living and increased accessibility features can be of benefit to disabled people, allowing them the independence of shopping and learning without leaving their home. New technologies are changing the way in which individuals operate and give all members of society improved access to information and services. TV and music files can be downloaded from a personal computer or mobile device, and Internet-enabled TV provides Internet access. Privacy and e-safety guidelines have been implemented with the advent of technology. The DPA protects computerised personal data and software helps guard data against viruses and spyware. Online services have affected the following: 

Learning Technology has resulted in new types of qualification being created. Technology has also affected the way we learn by offering flexible ways of gaining qualifications. E-learning or computer-aided learning (CAL) offers new ways of learning by providing interactive resources, flexible hours (and location) in which to study, and computer-based assessment (e-portfolios).



Earning Technology has created new types of job and also new ways of working, such as remote working using mobile devices and wireless connectivity; this also results in flexible working hours, making it easier to fit work around family or other commitments. Technology has also resulted in changing skill requirements which can lead to the need for more skilled staff, further training for existing staff, outsourcing to specialised experts and potential job losses.

Leisure, shopping and money management Home users can access a wide variety of services and information at the click of a button. Holidays can be booked; groceries and fast food can be ordered; online banking enables users to view and manage bank accounts; goods can be purchased or sold directly or via an online auction. TV and music files can be downloaded from a personal computer or mobile device, and Internet-enabled TV provides Internet access. Online living and increased accessibility features can be of benefit to disabled people, allowing them the independence of shopping and learning without leaving their home. New technologies are changing the way in which individuals operate and give all members of society improved access to information and services.

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A - Online Services and Communication

Social interaction Examples include:  Social networking sites  Internet forums  Blogs (short for ‘web logs’)  Chat rooms  Online computer games

Health and well-being There is a wealth of information about health and well-being available online. Information can be accessed 24/7 and other users can share experiences and tips via forums. Patients can book online appointments. Technology is also used within the sports and leisure industry to track and monitor performance and attendance.

Business New ways of communicating have opened up markets on a global scale. Businesses around the world communicate with customers, suppliers and the public via email, web forms, instant messaging / live chat, blogs and forums.

1.1. Communication Methods New ways of communicating have opened up markets on a global scale. Businesses around the world communicate with customers, suppliers and the public via email, web forms, instant messaging / live chat, blogs and forums.

EXAMPLE An online educational book retailer in Dublin raises their online presence via their website and by maintaining a blog and contributing to business and book forums. The retailer receives an order for 50 books from a customer in South Africa via their website book-order form. The book retailer emails a printer in the UK to request a print run, and purchases book boxes from a web supplier via a website order form. The book retailer emails the customer with information on their order and provides tracking details. The retailer supplies a free customer

Examples of Online Communication service telephone number to the customer. This number is manned by advisors at 

a networking call centre in a different country. Social sites – e.g. Facebook, Google+, Twitter. Users can add personal information/photos and make it available to friends and family. Social network groups allow people to communicate with each other via instant messaging and email. A user can create a profile to digitally represent them. A private profile allows access to content for specified people, such as friends and family. A public profile is visible to everyone.



Internet forums / message boards – discussion groups about a variety of subjects; forums are often created to discuss a topical or controversial subject, to gain opinions and/or votes, and also for reviews. Users can also rate reviews to indicate how helpful they are.



Web conferencing – enables multiple users in different locations to communicate simultaneously using the Internet (businesses use web conferencing to hold meetings remotely).

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Blogs – (short for web logs) these are web diaries; celebrities usually have a blog on their website or social network to keep fans up to date with news, gossip, etc. A blog may contain biased views and personal opinions. A photoblog is where users can share and upload photographs in the form of a blog. Vlogging (video log/blog) refers to using video as a form of blog.



Microblogs – are smaller in content and size than a blog. Social networking sites have microblog features in the form of status updates.



Chat rooms – such as MSN, Skype and Google Talk allow users to communicate in real time with or without video.



Instant Messaging – Instant messaging is immediate and enables users to identify whether another user is online; it is a low-cost means of instant communication between two or more users.



VoIP – VoIP enables real-time communication over the Internet, using speech and live video. It can be used in conjunction with web meeting and conferencing software in order to create web conferences where multiple people can meet at a specified time.



Online computer games – enable users to play and compete against each other worldwide. Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are where multiple players interact in a virtual game world.



Virtual worlds – virtual reality (e.g. Second Life), used within computer games and other virtual environments, is a 3D environment that interactively responds to the behaviour of the user. A profile used in virtual games may include a name, character and avatar (image chosen to represent the user). Augmented reality is where reality is overlaid by virtual reality, making it a useful tool in education and demonstrations.



See Online Communication (page 21) for more information on social networks, blogs, instant messaging and VoIP.



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

A ________________ profile enables sharing of photos and video over the Internet without any restrictions or controls. (5)

2.

An ___________________ is an image chosen to represent the user. (6)

3.

Web _______________________________________ enables multiple users in different locations to communicate simultaneously and meet remotely using the Internet. (12)

4.

__________ enables real-time communication over the Internet, using speech and live video. (4)

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1.2. Real-Time Information Examples of real-time information include:     

Train timetables News services Traffic reports Flight status updates Weather reports

Real-time information is live data available 24/7, keeping users informed with flight, train and/or traffic status updates with news on traffic hold-ups, accidents or incidents, and live news reports with breaking headlines, sometimes via Twitter feeds as they unfold. Online weather forecasts are available, providing meteorological information about climate, precipitation and wind speeds, tides, severe weather warnings, often with live satellite coverage and/or radar images of a specified area.

News Services The latest news stories can be followed on dedicated news websites (BBC, ITV, Reuters) and also via news updates on home pages of other websites, such as MSN, Yahoo, etc. News can be accessed via a mobile handheld device with Internet access.

RSS Readers RSS stands for Really Simple Syndication feed and is a method for subscribing to online content. Subscribing to RSS feeds ensures that website content is kept updated, enabling users to keep up to date with breaking news, updated blogs (web logs) and other media, such as audio and video. In order to view RSS feeds, software called a news feeder or RSS or feed reader is needed. Some software is accessible via a browser and some are downloads. An RSS feed subscription using a browser enables updated information to be viewed on any computer, whereas downloadable versions require feeds on a computer where the software has been installed. RSS readers will check for updates and download them to the user's computer on a regular basis.



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

Breaking headlines are sometimes available as Twitter __________________. (5)

2.

_________ is a method for subscribing to online content. (3 abbr.)

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1.3. Commerce Internet Banking Internet (or online) banking is a convenient way of managing a bank account without the need for visiting the bank. With an online bank account a customer can do the following: 

View bank statements



Transfer money between accounts



Pay bills



View the bank's services and products



Apply to upgrade bank account or apply for other services



View interest rates and payment details for overdrafts / loans / credit cards



Set up direct debits and standing orders

Cash cannot be physically withdrawn using online banking. To access their account, a customer must log in with a unique login and password. Other security details may be requested in order to access the account, such as the answer to a pre-set question (e.g. what is my favourite colour? or what is my mother's maiden name?). Accessing an Online Bank Account Most online accounts, such as for online shopping, ask the customer to enter their full password to gain access. A bank will request that the customer enters specified characters from the password, such as the first, third and last characters. Using menus from which the customer selects specified characters from their password is more secure than typing in the details as it helps prevents key-loggers from capturing the password. The customer may also be asked to answer a security question. Other security measures that banks use include automatically logging the customer out if they navigate away from the site and only allowing a customer to log into their account from one computer at a time. Further authorisation may be required to make a money transfer. This involves inserting the card into a card reader and entering the PIN (referred to as PINsentry). Once the card is identified and recognised, the customer will be supplied with a series of numbers which they should enter into the provided boxes. If the numbers entered by the customer match those given by the card reader, the customer can proceed.

Online Auction Websites An online or Internet auction enables a seller to list an item on which they will accept bids – the highest bid at closing will be the purchaser (subject to winning bid meeting any reserve price that the seller has stipulated). The bidding remains active for a number of days, enabling a potential bidder to monitor the progress of an online auction and make a bid when they are ready. The seller usually incurs selling costs (e.g. a fee to list the item plus a fee if item sells). A bidder can check up on a seller's reputation by reading feedback from previous customers.

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The bidder should check the following: 

Accepted payment methods



Post and packaging costs



Returns policy



The item description



Feedback from previous customers

A bidder can opt out of the auction if the bidding exceeds their budget, but, once the auction has ended and the final winning bid is accepted, the bidder must make payment (usually via PayPal). The seller will send the item only once payment has been made. Online auctions use the Internet to communicate between the auction site, the vendor and the bidders. A potential bidder must register details with the auction site and use a unique login and password in order to sign in and make a bid. Payment is usually completed using a debit or credit card or via a PayPal account (see below). Auction site transactions are recorded within a database, which is regularly updated to reflect current bidding status.

Internet Shopping (E-commerce) The Internet can be used for online banking, booking tickets, shopping and bidding in online auctions. A web browser is needed in order to use the Internet, such as Firefox, Internet Explorer or Google Chrome. Online shopping is a convenient way to make purchases and bookings without leaving your home. E-commerce sites use checkouts enabling customers to use credit or debit cards to make secure transactions. Another means of online payment is via PayPal. PayPal hides payment details so that the user does not have to share them online when they make a purchase and also provides payment protection so that refunds can be issued to a purchaser if required. Online shopping is convenient and easy, being available 24/7 and so allowing shopping at any time. How it Works Purchases are made using payment methods, such as PayPal, credit card or debit card. The customer must initially register with the organisation by providing their personal details in order to log in / sign in to their account. The customer then chooses an item, or items, and places them in the shopping trolley/basket or cart before proceeding to payment. Shipping costs are added to the subtotal and any discounts or vouchers are subtracted before the final total is calculated and displayed. The customer enters their account details (credit or debit card number, type of card, security number, etc.) and confirms the billing and shipping address before confirming payment. A confirmation email or web message is displayed to confirm the successful completion of the transaction. An order number/code is allocated to the transaction and a tracking number may be also be allocated in order to enable parcel tracking. Item Tracking Items are stored on an organisation's database. When an item is ordered, a unique tracking number is supplied to the customer via email. A tracking number is allocated to the order which can be used to track the progress of the parcel/item via the organisation's database. Item tracking helps to improve customer relations.

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Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

Home banking is an example of an _______________________ _______________________________. (6, 7)

2.

An online _______________________ is a place where a seller can list an item on which they will accept bids. (7)

E-consumer Rights When you buy goods online you are protected by consumer rights, such as Distance Selling Regulations. Ecommerce is operated on a global scale and it is important that you check the regulations and the econsumer rights present in the geographical location of the online company you're dealing with. Internet sales are typically seen as mail order and are bound by UK and EEA (European Economic Area) regulations for mail order and distance selling. Consumer rights law states that goods must: 

Be in satisfactory condition



Be fit for purpose



Match their description

A trader must not provide misleading information about the product or service or fail to provide the consumer with important information about the product or service. If one or more of the above applies, the consumer is entitled to the following: 

Full refund (this lasts for a limited amount of time)



Partial refund



Repair of goods



Replacement of goods



Compensation (where applicable)

An online consumer is given a short time to inspect the goods and is entitled to a cooling-off period (or right to cancel) of seven days which allows the consumer to cancel the transaction and return the goods for a full refund without providing a reason. A trader must reimburse a customer within 30 days. Certain goods are excluded from the seven-day cooling-off period, such as perishable goods, newspapers and magazines, personalised goods, CDs, DVDs where the seal is broken or gaming and lottery. Financial products are subject to a 14 day cooling-off period.

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A - Online Services and Communication

1.4. Government The government provides websites that enable users to create accounts and send in online tax assessments, votes and applications for services, such as council tax benefit or student loans.

Online Tax Returns Self-employed traders are liable to pay Income Tax and maintain National Insurance (NI) contributions based on the profits from their business. They must keep annual business accounts which show the expenditure incurred and the income received and enter these details onto a tax return form. Online tax returns automatically calculate the amount of tax or NI payable based on the figures input by the user. This makes online tax returns a quick and easy way of completing annual tax assessments without the need to use calculations. Payment can also be made securely online.

Electronic Voting E-votes can be cast remotely without the need to attend a polling station via online voting. Candidates must be registered for e-voting in order to use this service.

Applications for Services/Grants Applications can be made online for many services provided by the government. These include (but are not restricted to):  

Application for housing benefit or other benefits/pensions TV licence



Road tax



Passports



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below: 1.

These can be cast remotely without the need to attend a polling station (1–5) ________ _____________________________________

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1.5. Education Management Information Systems Management information systems are used within the education sector to control and monitor attendance and performance.

Computer-aided learning Computer-aided learning or CAL is a means of learning using a computer which incorporates multimedia and interactivity. Students can work through the resources at their own pace and access web based CAL at any time if they have internet access. Computer-aided learning systems provide self-assessment giving instant feedback on progress. This aids motivation. E-assessment is a means of computer based assessment or on-screen testing. This allows students to follow a course of study from their own homes.



See Online Communication (page 21) for more information on Virtual Learning Environments (VLE).



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blank below to complete the sentence:

1. CAL is web-based learning and requires connection to the _______________________________________. (8)

1.6. Business Business networking Business networking via forums, (a forum enables discussion on various issues and topics with other users) helps a business to raise their online profile. Keeping a blog (web log or online diary) or posting information on social and business networking sites makes a business more accessible and encourages communication. An intranet is an internal network which enables communication and information/resource sharing with other departments within an organisation. An intranet is used only by the company and its staff and can usually be accessed remotely using a password to enable home working. An extranet is similar to an intranet with external access permitted to specified authorised users.

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Virtual Computing With virtual computing users can download and use more than one operating system and perform a variety of actions simultaneously via a single mouse click and gain access to programs and hardware without the need to buy or install them on their own computer. Business users can check their e-mail whilst on the move, students can learn at home and workers can access files stored on internal servers from anywhere in the world.



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blank below to complete the sentence:

1.

The ability to access programs without the need to install them on their own computer is called _____________________________________ computing. (7)

1.7. Entertainment Download Services – Music and Video Music can be downloaded from a variety of sites either for free or on a pay-to-use basis. Most sites allow users to listen to a short sample of the music, play a track (listen first before deciding to buy) or buy the track of their choice. Most sites require users to register with the website to create an account before playing or downloading the music (some websites allow unregistered users to listen to samples). The sample track is not downloaded onto your PC. You will need speakers or headphones that are connected to your computer before you can listen to music. Spotify, Napster and the iTunes Store (Apple Inc.) are examples of music download sites. These sites allow registered users to listen free (and legally) to music tracks. To download a track as an MP3 file, the user must buy the track. Music downloads are subject to copyright which prohibits the unlawful use of downloaded tracks (e.g. copying without the owner’s permission). Streaming refers to the ability to listen to music or watch a video/movie in real time without it being downloaded onto the computer, such as watching movies or listening to music from an online source. An example is when a video is viewed on YouTube. The type of connection and performance of the device you are using will affect the quality of reception. Streaming happens in real time and is quicker as the file is not downloaded onto the computer, but it requires a faster connection to prevent pauses and interruptions in video transmission. Downloading means creating a physical copy of the file so that it can be viewed at a later date.

Download Services – On-Demand and Catch-Up TV On-demand TV refers to a streaming Internet TV service or pay-per-view downloads or free-to-view catch-ups. Catch-up TV (Internet TV) enables a viewer to catch up on missed programs via a media device, such as a computer, mobile phone (e.g. iPhone) or games console. Examples of catch-up TV services are BBC iPlayer, Demand Five, 4oD (Channel 4 On Demand) and ITV Player. On-demand services, such as a BT Vision box, enable recording, pausing of live programmes and access to multiple Freeview channels.

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Download Services – Internet Radio Internet radio services, also known as web radio or streaming radio, are available via the Internet in the form of streaming media (different from podcasts which need to be downloaded) and are similar to traditional FM/AM radio services, delivering news, different genres of music, sport, comedy and interviews. Advantages



Disadvantages



Availability: It can be accessed anywhere in the world, making it a popular listening choice for expatriates living outside the country.



Streamed: It can be streamed directly from an Internet-connected device without the need for downloading to a storage device.



Adverts: Fewer advertisements as Internet radio is cheaper to run than a radio station and therefore does not rely so heavily on advertising revenue.



Genres: It has a wide range of music genres and choices.



Sound quality: Less interference (e.g. from weather).



Catch-up: Listen to a missed track via the catch-up facility on the radio website.



Free: Most, but not all, Internet radio stations are free (you may have to create an account).



Digital audio recording: broadcasts can be recorded and transferred to a portable device using Wi-Fi, Wi-Fi Direct, USB cables, ADSL or FireWire.



Register: You may need to register an account.



Connection: You need an Internet connection.



Bandwidth: Listening to streaming broadcasts uses up bandwidth (the rate at which data is transferred).

Download Services – Films Films can be downloaded and played offline by any digital devices that support that particular movie file format. Alternatively, they can be streamed online using websites such as Netflix and LoveFilm. Both of these subscription-based services also provide their customers with applications which enable access to the films via games consoles, smartphones and tablets.

Download Services – Software Various software packages can be downloaded from the Internet in the form of freeware (free software), shareware (software that allows you to sample and evaluate the package for a specified amount of time before you purchase), and software that requires you to purchase a licence before downloading. A program file has the file extension .exe. To download software, select the hyperlink and follow the instructions. Care should be taken whenever downloading programs from the Internet. Files with an .exe extension are often used to transfer malicious files such as viruses. Only download from trustworthy sources. Shareware is software that a user can download onto their computer for a trial period before purchasing a software licence. Freeware is software that is totally free to use and does not require a software licence. ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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The application Steam is a popular software download service, which is used to distribute games and related media online. Content is provided by both small independent developers to larger software houses. Steam provides the user with installation and automatic management of software across multiple computers, as well as community features such as friends lists, cloud saving, and in-game voice and chat functionality. With software downloads becoming increasingly popular, many organisations have made software downloads available, as either an alternative to traditional distribution methods (e.g. GAME), or to replace their existing model (e.g. Adobe Creative Cloud).

Download Services – Upgrades Software upgrades, such as critical security updates or service packs, are available to download from the original manufacturer's website. These updates are referred to as patches (software patches are also referred to as service packs in relation to operating system software) and refer to updates that a user can download from their software service provider to fix issues or update the software. To keep software up to date and free from threats, it is important to download patches when they become available.



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

Music downloads are subject to _____________________________________________ which prohibits the unlawful use of downloaded tracks (e.g. copying without the owner’s permission). (9)

2.

Software upgrades, such as critical security updates or service packs, are referred to as ____________________________________. (7)

3.

_____________________________________________________ refers to the ability to listen to music or watch a video/movie in real time without it being downloaded onto the computer. (9)

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1.8. Online Advertisements Advertisements are aimed at grabbing your attention and making you buy/read/use their product. They will make good use of colour and imagery. The wording may not immediately refer to the product, but will be aimed at grabbing the attention of the reader so that they read on and find out more about the advertised item. Some adverts use deliberately controversial wording/imagery to grab attention. Commercial advertisements may also use rollovers and interactive elements which invite the user to click to see a result. ! Transactional data is data used in credit or debit card transactions which can be used for targeted advertising based on customer purchases/preferences. Animation can be created by programs such as Flash. Animations add fun and interest to multimedia products and can be used to create interactive elements. Animations are used in games, interactive quizzes, educational websites, adverts and presentations. Commercial advertisements use animation to good effect and also use rollovers to enable a user to interact with the advert. Ensure that pop-ups are kept to a minimum within the interactive multimedia product and that they are relevant and informative, rather than annoying distractions! An online form prompts the user to click option buttons or select items from a drop-down list. Some commercial advertisements prompt the user for feedback via a hyperlink to an online feedback form. The example below shows an advert displayed on the MSN website which actively seeks feedback from viewers:

This advert provides a link to a feedback form.

Some Internet sites, such as Spotify, use a 'hook' to get users to register for free usage. The 'power of free' is a powerful advertising tool which leads to the company gaining user details for further market research and advertising, and often results in users registering for full (paid) access. A cookie is a small text file that is downloaded into your web browser's directory or folder when you visit certain sites. When you revisit a site, your PC returns the cookie that holds your details (such as your email address) to the server. This allows the site to personalise your details – such as ‘Good Day Mr Bloggs’ – and makes it easier for the customer to create and save shopping lists. Cookies are also used to remember a customer's preferences, based on what they have previously viewed or purchased. This means that cookies can be used for targeted marketing, allowing a profile of the customer to be built up based on what they have clicked on or viewed. It is referred to as targeted marketing because the information is used to target adverts at you based on your preferences. Others can also access information in the cookie – some companies pass on details without permission. You can change the settings so that your computer automatically blocks or restricts certain cookies. Learn more about cookies at www.cookiecentral.com.

Adware Adware refers to a program that displays advertising on a user's computer, usually in the form of popups. Adware advertising is designed to target the user and is based on results from spyware monitoring of a user's web-browsing habits.

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Pay-Per-Click (Affiliate) Many online businesses (merchants) offer an affiliate program to website owners (affiliates) where they display an advert or link to a webpage and get paid a commission if a user navigates to their site and purchases an item (pay-per-click). Affiliate programs can be an effective way of e-marketing.



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

An _________________________________________________ is a website that directs traffic from their site

via a link or advert to a merchant's website. (9) 2.

A ________________________________ is a small text file that is downloaded into your web browser's

directory or folder when you visit certain sites. (6)

1.9. Online Data Storage Remote backup services, also referred to as digital vaults, are provided by ISPs over broadband Internet connections, providing convenient access to files over the Internet and the ability to share files with friends, family or colleagues via a password. It also allows a user to protect files by enabling automatic backup. For data security reasons, this form of storage is not recommended for confidential or sensitive data. Advantages

Disadvantages



Ability to share files with other users





Ability to access files wherever you are and from a variety of mobile media (laptop, smartphone, etc.)

Confidential or sensitive data is at risk from hackers



Data not protected by your own security measures (such as firewall and antivirus software)



Some vaults use encryption to protect data



Data not backed up on to removable storage



Frees up storage space on your computer





Not affected by the corruption of physical storage media

Need an Internet connection in order to access the files



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

Online data storage is a ____________________________ backup service. (6)

2.

Online data storage enables users to _______________________ files with friends and family. (5)

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2. Online Documents Introduction Online documents refer to files, photos or other documents that are shared or stored online. In order to send files online, either through web-based file sharing sites or via email, the files need to be compressed to make them smaller. File sharing enables greater collaboration between teams, allowing multiple access to files. Hosted applications enable networked computer users to share software without the need for it to be installed on a computer hard drive, thereby saving space.

File Compression Some files, particularly files containing images or videos, can become too large to save or send as an attachment via email or via online file transfer. To make files smaller you need to compress them. Compression software, such as WinZip or the Microsoft Windows Compressed (zipped) Folder facility, compresses files to a fraction of their former size, making them easier to store, back up, email and download. Files then have to be uncompressed or unzipped/expanded before they can be used. It is possible, using compression software, to compress more than one normal file into a single compressed file.

Compressing a File/Folder 1.

Navigate to the drive to which you have saved the file(s) or folder(s). Point at the file/folder to be compressed.

2.

Click the right mouse button and select Send

3.

Select Compressed (zipped) folder.

4.

The file will now be compressed into a zipped folder.

To...

Expanding a Compressed File/Folder 1.

Locate the zipped folder.

2.

Click on the right mouse button and select Extract All...

3.

The Compressed (Zipped) Folders Extraction Wizard will start.

4.

Click Next.

5.

Select the drive to where you want to extract the files – use the browse button to select drives.

6.

Click on the required drive and click on OK.

7.

Click on Next. The extraction process will begin. Click Finish when the extraction is completed.



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blank below to complete the sentence:

1.

Compressing a file makes it __________________________________________. (7)

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2.1. Online Software Hosted Applications A hosted application is a software application that is hosted over the Internet and not on a user’s computer. The benefits are: 

Low cost – it can be shared across a network of computers and some vendors charge for usage rather than per user, unlike traditional software licenses



Low maintenance – the vendor rather than the client deals with issues



Mobility – the client can access the software from anywhere



Instant availability – because the software is not installed physically onto a server or computer(s), the software is immediately available to the client



Automatic backup – files are automatically backed up onto online storage



See Online Documents (page 26) for more information on Cloud Computing.

Sharing Files Sharing files with other users online is made possible by using file sharing software, such as Google Docs. This application enables users to share and edit documents, spreadsheets and presentations at the same time. Files can be stored and shared using online storage. Photo sharing sites, such as Flickr enable users to upload their own photos and view photographs uploaded by other users. File hosting sites such as MediaFire enable users to share files with other users.

Collaborative Tools Collaborative tools enable users to share files, store files and work to a shared timetable online using collaborative tools such as Outlook Calendar to synchronise timescales and Google Apps or Microsoft SharePoint Server® for file sharing.

Social Bookmarking Tools A bookmark is a saved link to a web page. Social bookmarking enables Internet users to manage, store, organise and share bookmarks of web resources. The files are not shared, only the bookmark is (link to the webpage). It is important that bookmarks are given appropriate tags or descriptions so that users can find them easily.



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

Collaborative tools enable users to ______________________ files. (5)

2.

_____________________ applications are software applications that are available over the Internet. (6)

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2.2. Controls Version Control Version control for online documents enables multiple users to make different versions of the same document as revisions and amendments are made. The file can be reverted to the previous version if required. Version control enables a user to review and track revisions and modifications (version history) between versions of the same file. When working collaboratively online, it is advisable to set access rights and editorial permissions to restrict access and changes to a document. Software is available that will automate version control, keeping track of revisions and ensuring that only one user can make changes to a document at a time. It is important to maintain full control over who can access and edit shared documents, ensuring that sensitive information is kept secure.

Access Levels Access levels are the levels of access provided by User IDs – these must be monitored and controlled to ensure that only certain personnel have access to particular areas on the system. For instance, a network manager would have access allowing him/her the rights to make changes on the network. Some organisations use passwords to gain access to specific parts of a network system. Authorised users are allowed to access areas on the system using their password (referred to as access rights) and this helps to keep confidential or sensitive data secure from unauthorised users. Sensitive and confidential information is at risk of unauthorised access if the correct security procedures are not followed. The best way to ensure security of data is to use a login and password to access a computer system. Types of information that can be at risk of unauthorised access are financial information, personal details, health records and social security details. It is vital that organisations use identification to verify authorisation or access to a computer system. A User ID, usually referred to as username or login, and password are essential to ensuring the security of private and sensitive information. Most organisations need passwords to gain access to systems and to enable editing rights. A company or educational establishment that uses a network would require users to be allocated with a login name (username) and password to be able to access the network drives and resources. Most ICT systems require a password or PIN before access is granted. To prevent unauthorised access, you should use a password to log onto the system. A password should be strong, e.g. contain a random mix of letters and numbers that have no personal significance (e.g. does not include personal dates or names) and cannot be easily guessed. For example, do not use dates of birth or other significant dates, or mother's maiden name or pets' names (weak). Not only does this make it easier for an unauthorised user to enter your ICT system, but it also provides them with your personal details which can be used in identity theft and fraud. Passwords should be changed regularly and never shared with anyone else. Most passwords are case sensitive which means that you can also mix upper- and lower-case letters (e.g. TkLMn).

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File Permissions File permissions refer to security controls that a user can set to secure files from unauthorised access, editing or formatting. A file that can be shared and edited by more than one user is a read-write file, which means that the file can be accessed and read and can also have data written to it (for example, when the file is edited/amended and then saved). You can change the attributes by making the file read-only. Selecting the read-only option will protect the file from being overwritten or amended. The file can be opened and read but changes will not be saved under the existing file name. If you wanted to make changes to a read-only document you would need to remove the tick from the read-only check box.

Password Protection Some documents are confidential or contain sensitive information which should only be seen by specified users. Document passwords are added to make sure that unauthorised users cannot access or make changes to a document. When a character is typed in it is displayed as a * or •. This is to ensure the privacy and security of the password.



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

Using a pet's name or an easily guessed word/name is an example of a ______________________ password. (4)

2.

Files that can be edited by another user are called _____________________- write files. (4)

3.

_________________________________________________ help to keep confidential or sensitive data secure from unauthorised users. (9)

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3. Online Communication Introduction Online communication refers to computer users interacting and communicating over a global network. Examples of online communication include: Online communities  Social networks  Online computer games  Virtual worlds Social media  Internet forums / message boards  Web conferencing  Blogs and podcasts  Wikis  Virtual learning environments (VLE) Real time communication  VoIP  SMS, MMS  Instant messaging  Chat rooms

3.1. Social Media Social media is used to publish information online in the form of blogs (web logs), podcasts, wikis, virtual learning environments, social networks and forums, and also to access information, such as message boards, chat rooms, instant messaging and web conferencing.

Wikis Websites can be a rich and varied source of information with web-based reference sites and online encyclopaedias and wiki sites. Wikis, such as Wikipedia®, are online encyclopaedias containing information contributed by other users. Information can be edited, e.g. added to or updated, directly from a user's web browser. For this reason, it is important to use information from this source with caution as it may contain bias or prejudice or may not be accurate or based entirely on fact.

!

Be careful about using wiki sites without cross-referencing to other sites of information as wikis are edited directly from a user’s computer.

Web Logs (Blogs) Blogs, (short for web logs), are web diaries; celebrities usually have a blog on their website or social network to keep fans up to date with news, gossip, etc. A blog may contain biased views and personal opinions. A photoblog is where users can share and upload photographs in the form of a blog. Vlogging (video log/blog) refers to using video as a form of blog. Microblogs are smaller in content and size than a blog. Social networking sites have microblog features in the form of status updates. ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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Podcasting Podcasts are audio broadcasts that are downloaded from a website onto a device, such as an iPod or other media player capable of playing mp3 files (podcasts can also be accessed via a computer with media player software installed). Subscribing to podcasts enables you to store audio content, such as radio shows or news, allowing you the convenience of listening to it when you are ready. Podcasts can be accessed via RSS feeds (see above) which means that the content is up to date and new.

Virtual Learning Environments A virtual learning environment or VLE supports learning and teaching via interactive online resources and guidance. VLEs are typically situated in an educational establishment, such as a school or college (Moodle being an example), and are used to supplement rather than replace traditional learning methods.



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

A _____________________ enables information to be edited, e.g. added to or updated, directly from a user's web browser. (4)

2.

Moodle is an example of a ____________________________ Learning Environment. (7)

3.

These are online audio broadcasts: _________________________________________. (8)

4.

________________________________________ (video log/blog) refers to using video as a form of blog. (8)

3.2. Online Communities and Social Networks An online community – sometimes referred to as an e-community or virtual community – is a means of communication between groups of people, such as social networking sites. Social Networks There are several social networking sites available, such as Facebook, Bebo, Twitter and MySpace. These types of site usually provide chat rooms, forums, email and instant messaging which allow you to post information about yourself and communicate with other users. Social networking has impacted on how people socialise. It is now possible to communicate and share information with people from different backgrounds, cultures and countries without ever meeting face to face. This can become an issue when unscrupulous people try to form friendships with other users by creating a misleading online personality (profile), such as using a false identity, gender and age group. Users can gather friends or followers and share information, video, audio, photographs and links with other users via their personal space. It is important to keep your profile private and only visible to friends and family to prevent fraudsters or unscrupulous people from accessing your personal information. ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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Friends that are gathered via social networking differ from the usual definition of friends and only a small number of them may be true friends. It is important to recognise the difference. A public profile should only be used to communicate and share information that cannot be used to identify you. Participants can comment on their friends' profiles on a Comment space, Wall or Testimonial area and this is visible to other users who have access to that profile. 

Be careful what you write about other people



Be careful what information you give away about yourself

Information that you post on a social network space will be visible to other users for a long time, so think about this before you add anything you may later regret! Information can also be copied and pasted into other areas, so you never know where personal information may end up. Embarrassing photos or videos could turn up on YouTube to haunt you! Social networking sites enable others to see what you are doing and where you are – be careful what you give away. Netiquette An online user should conform to the rules of netiquette (Internet etiquette) by using appropriate language. Using inflammatory or bad language and being deliberately provocative by using insulting, abusive terms designed to create bad feeling (called flaming) can get you kicked off certain forums and chat rooms. Using capital letters is considered SHOUTING in online communication and should be avoided. Be very careful about inciting strong feelings in regard to gender, race or creed and do not use harassing or bullying behaviour. If you experience harassment or bullying behaviour from another user, do not respond to them directly, but do follow the correct complaint procedure to register your concern. Private and Public Profiles A profile is a means of presenting an online personality within online communities and virtual worlds (e.g. personal spaces such as Myspace and Twitter). Google Profiles provide public access to your name, gender and profile photo. A profile that is used in virtual games may include a name, character and avatar (image chosen to represent the user). Private profiles enable a user to limit what content they want to share with other users by controlling access to their personal space, such as to friends and family (a member won't be able to view private information or interact with you unless they become a friend). Public profiles enable content sharing, such as pictures and videos, over the Internet without any access restrictions or controls.

Virtual World A virtual world is one where users can interact and communicate using an alter ego, such as within computer games and other virtual environments. Also referred to as Virtual Reality, it is a 3D environment that interactively responds to the behaviour of the user. A profile used in virtual games may include a name, character and avatar (image chosen to represent the user). Augmented reality is where reality is overlaid by virtual reality, making it a useful tool in education and demonstrations.

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Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

The guidelines for appropriate behaviour online are called ____________________________________. (10)

2.

An _____________________ is an image used to represent a user in a virtual world. (6)

3.

A _____________________ profile enables content sharing, such as pictures and videos, over the Internet without any access restrictions or controls. (6)

3.3. Real-Time Communication Real-time communication means communicating with one or multiple users simultaneously in 'real time' (instant, as it happens). Chat rooms such as MSN, Skype and Google Talk allow users to communicate in real time with or without video. Instant Messaging Instant messaging is immediate and enables users to identify whether another user is online; it is a lowcost means of instant communication between two or more users. Instant messaging also allows users to communicate for free over the Internet and use webcams to transmit real-time images and transfer files. IM is a great way of communicating via simultaneous conversations, providing speedy communication and ease of use. The benefits of instant messaging are: 

Conversation is immediate and performed in 'real time' (unlike email)



The environment is controlled (users need an email address or IM address to take part)



Pictures, photos and files can be exchanged



It is cheap and easy to use

IM can be performed via peer-to-peer (P2P) transmission or via a server/client network (e.g. a central server re-transmits the message to the recipient). VoIP VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) enables calls to be made over the Internet, such as through Skype or Google. Voice signals are converted from analogue to digital format. VoIP is cheap or free to subscribers of the same service from PC to PC. To communicate using VoIP, a user needs the following: 

Internet access and a telephone line



Microphone



Speakers



Webcam (optional)

VoIP enables real-time communication over the Internet, using speech and live video. It can be used in conjunction with web meeting and conferencing software in order to create web conferences where multiple people can meet at a specified time.

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Web Meeting/Conferencing Software Web meeting/conferencing software enables multiple users in different locations to communicate simultaneously using the Internet (businesses use web conferencing to hold meetings remotely). Advantages

Disadvantages



Cuts down on travel costs and time



Participants can be located anywhere in the world (with an Internet connection)

 



Lack of Internet access or latency issues (latency is the time delay between sending and receiving data over a network)

Easier to organise appointments/meetings



Participants have access to their own resources in their physical location

Security issues as confidential and sensitive information may be intercepted



Lack of human contact

SMS and MMS SMS (Short Message Service) enables mobile phone users to send and receive short text messages. SMS also allows short messages to be transmitted from a phone to an email address. When used in mobile phone technology, it is referred to as text messaging. SMS can send short messages to mobile devices such as a PDA. Messages are sent via a computer using an SMS gateway. MMS (Multimedia Message Service) enables users to send messages containing multimedia content such as images, videos and ringtones.



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

______________ enables real-time communication over the Internet, using speech and live video. (4)

2.

____________________________________ messaging is immediate and enables users to identify whether

another user is online. (7) 3.

Businesses use web ________________________________________________ to hold meetings remotely. (12)

3.4. Implications of Online Communication There are many implications of online communication: security issues (interception of confidential information), safety issues, latency, and the need to maintain Internet access. Advantages of online communication include the ability to gather friends or followers and share information, video, audio, photographs and links with other users via their personal space. It is now possible to communicate and share information with people from different backgrounds, cultures and countries without ever meeting face to face. Disadvantages include possibilities of online grooming by people who attempt to form friendships with other users via chat rooms, instant messaging and social networks, by creating a misleading online personality (profile), such as by using a false identity, gender and age group. It is important to keep profiles private and ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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only visible to friends and family to prevent fraudsters from accessing personal information. Information that you post on a social network space will be visible to other users for a long time. Instant messaging happens in 'real time' and can prove distracting, interrupting other activities, such as studying or work. IM is open to threats such as malicious code, phishing and hacking (see Learning Aim C for more information).



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below:

1.

This is the term used to describe the activity by unscrupulous people who attempt to form friendships with young users via chat rooms, instant messaging and social networks, by creating a misleading online personality. (6, 8) _________________________ _____________________________________

3.5. Cloud Computing and Storage Software as a Service (SaaS) Cloud computing is a term used for virtual computing, such as hosted applications and online data storage or a combination of both. A hosted application is a software application that is hosted over the Internet and not on a user's computer.

Advantages

Disadvantages



Low cost – it can be shared across a network of computers and some vendors charge for usage rather than per user, unlike traditional software licenses



Connection – affected by Internet connection and latency. If your Internet connection is down you lose access to the software. Your bandwidth will affect speed of data transfer



Low maintenance – the vendor rather than the client deals with issues and provides updates



Lack of control – user cannot personalise settings/defaults



Mobility – the client can access the software from anywhere





Instant availability – the software is not installed physically onto a server or computer(s), but is made immediately available to the client via download

Security – not protected by your own security measures, such as a firewall and antivirus software



Space saving – no physical storage space required

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Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

____________________ computing is a term used for virtual computing. (5)

2.

A disadvantage of hosted applications is that they can be affected by _________________________. (7)

3.

____________________________________ affects speed of data transfer. (9)

3.6. Ubiquitous Computing Ubiquitous computing is applied to technology which appears in everyday objects and activities, seemingly everywhere. For example, controlled lighting or a plant-watering system is deemed ubiquitous computing as it uses a variety of devices and connections, which the user can interact with or control. Ubiquitous computing integrates control, management and human interaction and is evident in sensor technology, mobile computing, mobile communication and artificial intelligence (robotics). Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Radio frequency tracking is the method for tracking wireless transfer of data. This is widely integrated in everyday objects and work activities, and so could be termed as ubiquitous. Activities and objects that use RFID include:  A fridge that monitors supplies  Stock control and location in a warehouse  Office buildings that record where people are in the building  A plant-watering system or a pet collar



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blank below to complete the sentence:

1.

Radio _____________________________ tracking is widely integrated into everyday objects. (9)

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A - Online Services and Communication Activity 1 – Le arning Aim A

Activity 1 Work out the answers to the questions below and write them in the relevant boxes to reveal a word in the shaded squares which is connected with this chapter.

1 2

1.

IM stands for _________________ Messaging. (7)

2.

A shortened version of a virtual learning environment at a training centre, such as Moodle. (3)

3.

A digital __________ is used for online storage. (5)

4.

This is a web page that can be edited directly from a user's browser. (4)

5.

A term for computing or technology that appears in everyday objects and activities. (10)

6.

This refers to virtual computing and storage. (5)

7.

This can be private or public and provides information about a social network user. (7)

8.

This is a program that works on a pay-per-click basis. (9)

9.

A means of viewing video in real time. (9)

10.

This method makes files smaller in order to make them a manageable size to send via email or web transfer. (11)

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

Answer to shaded squares – 10 letters (clue: it refers to using appropriate behaviour when online).

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A - Online Services and Communication Activity 2 – Le arning Aim A

Activity 2 1.

2.

Match each example on the left to the correct description on the right.

1. Ubiquitous computing

a. transfer files or a web page to the Internet

2. Upload

b. a computer which shares resources and communicates via a server

3. Client

c. use of everyday objects with RFID microchip networking

Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

a.

Files that are transferred over the Internet should be _______________________________ to make them smaller. (10)

b.

Document ___________________________ are added to make sure that unauthorised users cannot access or make changes to a document. (9)

c.

The _____________ - _____________ option will protect the file from being overwritten or amended. (4-4)

d.

File ________________________ refer to security controls that a user can set to secure files from unauthorised access, editing or formatting. (11)

e.

___________________ levels are the levels of access that ensure only certain personnel have access to particular areas on the system. (6)

f.

Wikis, such as Wikipedia®, are _____________________ encyclopaedias containing information contributed by other users. (6)

g.

A ___________________________ profile enables a user to limit what content they want to share with other users by controlling access to their personal space, such as to friends and family. (7)

h.

Guidelines that govern appropriate behaviour online are called ___________________________________. (10)

i.

______________ enables real-time communication over the Internet, using speech and live video. (4)

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Learning Aim B

B.

The Internet and the Exchange and Storage of Information by Digital Devices

1. The Internet The Internet is a network of interconnected computers which communicate globally with each other via an IP (Internet Protocol) address. Accessing the Internet enables a user to access the World Wide Web (WWW). The World Wide Web is a collection of websites which are available on the Internet. The Internet is very useful in the home, school or at work – allowing the user to research information quickly and easily. You may use the Internet for research projects at school or college. Governments use the Internet to issue passports. The Internet can also be used for online banking so that you can check your account balance, request a statement and move money between accounts without leaving the comfort of your own home. The Internet can also be used to:  Communicate – Emails, chat rooms, social networks, etc.  Entertain – Downloading/streaming music and video, online gaming, etc.  Inform – Wikis, articles, blogs, etc.  Shop – For goods (e.g. clothes) and services (e.g. car hire). Computers are networked together globally using telephone network technology. Data is sent and received via a phone line in the form of analogue and digital signals. Analogue is the standard phone line signal and sends data in varying waves. This makes analogue slower than digital and more prone to corruption. Digital data is sent as ones and zeros and is constant. Digital data is transmitted faster than analogue. ADSL (Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line) is a form of broadband Internet connection. Data using ADSL can be sent via the phone line and also through broadband Internet communication. This enables the user to have permanent connection to the Internet without losing access to the phone line or fax (as happens with dial-up connection). ADSL requires a filter to be plugged into your existing phone line socket to split the incoming signal so that it separates data and voice. A modem (short for modulator/demodulator) converts digital signals into analogue (a standard phone line signal is analogue) and vice versa to transfer data down a phone line. Modems operate at speeds known as transfer rates in bits per second. The Internet can be accessed via a PC, laptop, smartphone, tablet, games console or Internet-ready (Smart) TV. Whatever media is used to access the Internet, it is important that, while online, the user is protected from risks and threats. The World Wide Web can be browsed (or surfed) using a web browser such as the following: Popular browsers  Microsoft® Internet Explorer  Mozilla Firefox  Google Chrome ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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B – The Internet and Exchange and Storage of Information



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

Google Chrome is an example of a ________________________________. (7)

2.

______________________________________ means language. (8)

1.1. Internet Service Providers (ISPs) An ISP (Internet service provider) provides an Internet connection for a fee. There are many ISPs available, such as BT, AOL, TalkTalk and many others, all providing connectivity services at different prices and Internet speeds. An ISP provides the following services: 

Web space



Email



Internet access



Online support



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blank below to complete the sentence:

1.

ISP stands for Internet ___________________________ provider. (7)

1.2. Internet Infrastructure Point of Presence (PoP) A point of presence is an access point (i.e. a physical location) for connecting networks or communication devices to the Internet, usually comprising a server, router, modems and switches. A web point of presence may refer to a web page on a social networking site. A wireless point of presence is utilised in wireless devices, such as mobile phones.

Network Access Point (NAP) A Network Access Point (NAP) is a public network exchange where ISPs can connect and exchange traffic between their networks via peering arrangements. A NAP, in effect, determines how traffic is routed. A NAP is now referred to as an Information Exchange Point (IXP). An IXP enables a direct interconnection of networks which provides a more efficient network service reducing issues associated with a NAP, such as latency and bandwidth.



See the Networks section (page 41) for information on networks, routers, clients and servers.

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1.3. Internet Connections To connect to the Internet you need a computer, phone line, modem and ISP (Internet service provider). You will also require access to browser software, such as Internet Explorer or Google Chrome. The ISP provides connectivity services and gives you access to the Internet in the form of dial-up or broadband connection; for either of these options there are wired or wireless connections available. There are numerous ISPs available and the costs vary.



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

A point of presence is an __________________________ point for connecting networks. (6)

2.

A ___________________________ _________________________ _______________________ is a public network exchange where ISPs can exchange traffic. (7, 6, 5)

Broadband and Dial-up Connections The table below shows the advantages and disadvantages of broadband and dial-up connections: Advantages

Broadband

Dial-up

Disadvantage



Faster than dial-up



Usually comes with own firewall protection



Always on – means that you can use phone and fax while connected



Larger download capacity



Quick and easy to install (ISP software CDs often found on front covers of computing publications)



Cheap – no monthly fee if on a Pay As You Go tariff, ideal for light users



Can be expensive with a contract and monthly payment, particularly if you are not a regular user



Slower to connect than broadband and difficulties in connecting during peak times; can sometimes disconnect while in use if the user is viewing a page and not activating links



Limited download capacity



Cannot receive phone calls or faxes while connected

Wireless Connections A network can be wired (using cables for connectivity) or wireless (using radio wave frequency for connectivity). A wireless connection enables connectivity to the Internet via a portable device, such as a laptop or mobile phone but it can be vulnerable to security threats and should be protected by using firewalls to prevent unauthorised access (hacking) and antivirus software to prevent viruses and worms entering the system via downloaded malicious content. Wi-Fi enables mobile devices to connect to the Internet via hotspots. Wi-Fi hotspots are available in public places such as shopping centres, restaurants and airports and are a convenient way of gaining access to the Internet while on the move. Wi-Fi Direct enables easy communication and the transfer of data between devices. High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is used in wireless mobile

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broadband technology (e.g. 3G, 4G), providing fast upload and download speeds to GSM devices (HSPA improves speed of online access). A wired connection can be more reliable, less inclined to latency issues; unaffected by walls or other potential signal blockers and it also has the advantage of supplying full bandwidth to each user, rather than sharing it over a wireless or cable modem with other users. Unlike a wireless connection, a wired connection is not affected by distance from the source antenna. However, wired connections are subject to damage and also have restrictions as to location of sockets etc. The table below details the advantages and disadvantages of wireless connections against the more traditional wired connection methods. Advantages Wired

Wireless



Fewer interruptions to signal



More secure



No health concerns about exposure to radio waves

 



Disadvantages 

Wires are messy and present a tripping hazard. If connecting multiple devices, particularly between rooms in a household, using wires can be troublesome

Ease of use, no wires



Devices identify and connect to each other without needing physical attachment

Possibility of a break in signal, potentially causing interruptions in service (problematic when playing games)



Less secure/Limited range



Using higher-consumption Wi-Fi can drain batteries and not all devices have Wi-Fi built in



Other wireless devices can cause interference



There are health concerns about long-term exposure to wireless radio waves and microwaves

Mobility and outdoor use: can connect to the Internet via public Wi-Fi hotspots



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below:

1.

Wi-Fi enables mobile devices to connect to the Internet via _______________________________. (8)

2.

This type of connection, unlike dial-up, is always on. (9) ___________________________________________

3.

This type of connection is ideal for light users of the Internet. (4-2) __________________

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B – The Internet and Exchange and Storage of Information

1.4. Internet Protocols Each computer connected to the Internet is allocated a unique address, called an IP address (Internet Protocol). To be able to communicate in a universal language that each computer can understand, we use Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (Protocol means language) or TCP/IP. FTP means File Transfer Protocol – this allows fast transfer of files over the Internet. The Internet is also referred to as the Information Super Highway.



1.5. Data Transmission and Bandwidth Data transfer is referred to as bandwidth. Data can be transmitted through cable (wired networks), wireless (infrared, radio, etc.) and satellite. Data transmission speeds will vary depending on the size of the data being transmitted and the method of transfer. The transfer rate of data is usually measured in megabits (million bits) or megabytes (million bytes). Data transfer also refers to the total amount of information downloaded from a website to a computer. The amount of visitors and the complexity of the site (pages, downloadable items, images, video, sound, etc.) affect the rate of data transfer on a website. A network connection is capable of fast transmission speeds with quicker download times compared to other means of data transfer. For example, transmission speeds for a 1 MB file using a LAN network connection (local area network) may be counted in fractions of a second.



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

________________ ________________________________ refers to the total amount of information downloaded from a website to a computer. (4, 8)

2.

____________________________________ affects transmission speeds and download times. (9)

2. World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW) is part of the Internet and forms a network of websites. Web pages on the Internet are programmed using HTML (Hypertext Mark-up Language).

2.1. Web Browsers A web browser allows you to view and interact with the World Wide Web. The first page that is displayed when you open a web browser is called the home page and is the default start page for a set of web pages. The home page will contain hyperlinks to other pages and other sites. A web browser requests a page and displays all components of the requested page on the user's computer (e.g. text, images, animations, videos, links, etc.).

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When a Web page is downloaded, it uses up bandwidth on a user's computer – web pages containing large pictures or videos use more bandwidth. Download speeds depend on the website content and can be affected by the type of browser you use, the speed of your computer and Internet connection and size/resolution of the pictures on the site.

2.2. Web Servers A web server hosts web pages which are supplied to clients (browsers). A web server provides dynamic web pages with which an end user can interact. Search engine servers and online forms use server-side technology.

2.3. Web Addresses (URLs) To find information on the Internet you can either enter the URL (Universal (or Uniform) Resource Locator), which is a specific website address, or use a search engine (a database-driven website that searches other websites for information) and then follow hyperlinks to find the relevant page (a hyperlink, or link, can either be text or an icon that, when selected, will take you to another page). All website addresses start with http:// which is automatically entered at the front of the address and means Hypertext Transfer Protocol (remember – Protocol means language). HTTPS indicates that a website is secure. The next part of the website address is www. followed by the domain name – usually the company name – and then .co.uk, .ac.uk, .com, .org, .net, .gov indicate the type of organisation or the location of the server. An example of a website address is shown below. http://www.msn.co.uk/ Hyper Text Transfer Protocol://World Wide Web.domain name.geographical location The last two characters in the domain name denote the country of origin – for example: uk, au, de. The website address above is the address for the Microsoft site.

2.4. Search Engines Search engines maintain indexes of web pages which allow the user to search for information on the World Wide Web using search criteria, or keywords. When the user types in the search criteria or keyword, the engine searches its vast database for those words and produces a list of links to likely websites. Many websites also contain a local search facility which enables the user to locate information within the site. Popular search engines include: 

Google www.google.com



Yahoo www.yahoo.com



Ask

www.ask.com



MSN

www.msn.com

You can change the search engine by entering the URL into the address bar. Each search engine holds a vast database of information. Meta tags are keywords that help users find a website. The meta tags should be keywords from the website content. Meta crawlers, such as Google, will pick up meta tags from the page content, not just the meta tags that are inserted.

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2.5. Hypertext Mark-up Language 

Hypertext Mark-up Language is the code used for creating web pages. Web browsers interpret HTML code and use it to generate web pages with formatting, styles and interactive interfaces.



HTML uses tags to surround the code and the head and body of a web page is divided into and .



HTML code uses closing tags to denote the end of the element, e.g. or .



Other tags include the tag to start and close paragraphs. The example below displays a tag to start a paragraph, entered text, and then a tag to close the paragraph: Hello



To format the text so that it is left aligned, the HTML code would be as follows: Hello



To format the text further with a different font and bold text: Hello

(b or strong are the attributes for bold and i or em are the attributes for italics) 

A simple web page may be as follows: Hello Thank you for visiting my web page

The above HTML code would be understood and interpreted by the browser as: Hello Thank you for visiting my new web page 

HTML code for a table might look like this:

The table tag includes the formatting, indicates a table row – note how the table uses closing tags and , refers to table cells, nbsp refers to a nonbreaking space in empty cells

   

A web designer may enter HTML code, along with other programming languages, such as Java, to create web pages or may use a web-editing software package which creates the HTML code behind the scenes. ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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2.6. Hyperlinks Hyperlinks allow users to navigate to different pages on a website (internal hyperlinks), or to an entirely different website (external hyperlinks). Hyperlinks can be displayed as text, buttons or pictures. When the user holds the cursor over the hyperlink, the cursor icon will change from an arrow into a hand, which tells the user that it can be clicked on. As soon as they do click on it, the web browser will take the user to the chosen location.



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

A _____________________ _____________________ allows a user to search for information on the World Wide Web using search criteria, or keywords. (6, 6)

2.

_______________________________ means language. (8)

3.

The ________________ _______________ ____________ is part of the Internet and forms a network of websites. (5, 4, 3)

4.

The attribute is an example of Hypertext ______________ _______ Language. (4-2)

5.

A web ____________________ hosts web pages which are supplied to clients. (6)

6.

_____________________________________ take the user to a different site (or different page within the same site). (10)

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3. Email Email, which stands for electronic mail, enables worldwide communication via computers or mobile devices between users.



With email you can send, receive, reply and forward mail to one or more recipients (a recipient is someone who receives). To have access to email you need a telephone line, modem, a computer and an Internet connection provided by an ISP (Internet service provider).

You can choose to access your mail via webmail, e.g. through Google Mail, Yahoo or Hotmail, or through an email software program, such as Outlook. An email address is made up of a username and domain name, separated by the @ symbol (this symbol is called the at symbol). The username is the name of the mailbox and the domain name indicates the name of the company or server and the location. For example the following email address [email protected] is made up of the username J.Smith, separated by @ and followed by the domain name (which is the name of the company/server and the location). Geographical location may be indicated by the two characters at the end of an email address (for example, uk = United Kingdom and ie = Ireland) unless a .com or .net domain is used. Email enables a user to send, reply and forward mail to other users, with or without attachments. An attachment is a file or files that are attached to an email message. This is a convenient way of sending files, such as photographs, to other users. Be careful not to use bad language or bullying tactics in emails – this is referred to as flaming and can get you knocked out of forums and chat rooms. Don’t send bulk mail to a recipient as this is known as spamming and can block the recipient’s inbox, making them unable to receive mail. Don’t use capital letters in email message text as this is considered SHOUTING! Email can improve communication in large organisations, enabling staff to keep in touch with colleagues and with up-to-date information. Files, such as minutes of meetings, agendas, audio files and pictures, etc. can be attached to emails and distributed. To set up an email account at home you will need a computer, a modem, an Internet service provider (such as BT, TalkTalk or Sky) and a telephone connection. You may also need to have the appropriate software – such as Outlook or Outlook Express – although you can opt to use the provider’s software if using webmail. You will be allocated an email address and a mailbox where you can control and manage your email account.

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3.1. Advantages of Using Email Advantages

Disadvantages



Can transmit data quickly and cheaply to multiple addresses



Attachments can introduce viruses into your computer



Can send attached files, such as photographs or audio files



Spam (unsolicited mail) and phishing (scam emails leading to identity theft)



Formatting options enable you to change background, font, size and colour



Can be insecure



Relies on power



Can enable people to keep in touch all over the world



Size/space restrictions will impact on what you can send/receive via email



Can be used to facilitate learning in CBT (Computer Based Training)



Attachment restrictions, such as size and restricted files – see below



Flexible – if using a web-based email account, you can access your mailbox and keep in touch from different locations, using any computer with an Internet connection. This is very convenient when travelling. This is also true of email client software if accessed from a laptop computer.

3.2. Size Restrictions Sending attachments increases the size of the message, and some recipients may have a limit on the size of messages they can receive and also a limit on the amount of mail they can store in their inbox. Before sending an attachment, you should ensure that the recipient has the relevant software program installed on their computer so that they can open the file. The Internet Protocol called MIME (Multi-purpose Internet Mail Extension) was created so that formatted documents, photos, sound and video files could be sent via email. This method uses mathematical formulae to encode and decode the attached files. This means that, before being sent, the files are converted to text (encoded) and then returned back to their original form when received (decoded). Outlook and Outlook Express restrict access to certain email message attachments, such as .exe (executable program file) and .mdb (Microsoft Access database). This is to guard you against malicious threats, such as worms and viruses.

3.3. Email and Webmail Email software, such as Microsoft Outlook, provides a mailbox so that you can manage your messages and/or newsgroups. These software packages enable files to be sent as attachments and allow the user to exchange information worldwide, quickly and cheaply. Web-based email accounts allow you to view your mail from any location in the world, using any computer with Internet access. This makes web-based email a more flexible option, enabling you to keep in touch with business and/or family contacts wherever you are. A disadvantage of some web-based email accounts is the lack of available text formatting options. Another disadvantage is that, because web-based email accounts run off a web server, you need to be connected to the Internet before you can read and compose email messages. An advantage of using web-based mail is that messages, because they are stored on the web server and not on your computer, do not use space on your hard drive. In email software clients, messages are stored on the computer’s hard drive which means that you can read and compose messages while offline. Then when you are ready to send and receive mail messages, you can go online.

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3.4. Store and Forward Email is not instant as most people assume, but in fact uses a store and forward model whereby mail is stored at a location before being verified and sent on to the recipient. An example of this is SMTP (see below) where the ISP stores messages on a server where they can be edited, filtered against spam, viruses and phishing, or re-addressed before being forwarded to the target SMTP server on request.

3.5. Email Protocols Email systems use either POP or IMAP to transfer emails from a server to a client device. 

IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol) – emails are pushed directly to the device and a copy of the email is kept on both the server and the client device (phone, computer). IMAP allows simultaneous access by multiple clients.



POP3 (Post Office Protocol) – requires users to access email via an Internet mail account and the email is then deleted from the server once it is sent to the client device.



SMTP – Standard email protocol over the Internet and between servers. Messages are retrieved with an email client using either IMAP or POP protocols.



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

Bulk mail is known as ________________. (4)

2.

SMTP is an example of a Store and ___________________________ model. (7)

3.

An advantage of using ___________ - _________________ mail is that messages, because they are stored on the web server and not on your computer, do not use space on your hard drive. (3-5)

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4. Data Exchange Data exchange refers to the passing of data between computers on a network, the methods of transmitting data between computers and the type of transmission mode.

4.1. What is a Network? A network is a group of connected digital devices, such as a home computer network, the Internet, a mobile phone network or a landline phone network. A network can be wired (using cables for connectivity) or wireless (using radio wave frequency for connectivity). Any device (smartphone, PDA, laptop, desktop) that is connected to a wireless network is called a station and must be equipped with a wireless network interface controller. A station contains the client and an access point (AP) which is usually a router which transmits and receives radio signals. A peer-to-peer (P2P) network refers to a device which communicates wirelessly with another device without using a central access point. A Local Area Network (LAN) is used to connect computers within an office or building. A Wide Area Network (WAN) is used to connect computers across different sites and locations. Networking computers together enables users to share information, resources and printers. A network is used to: 

Share information – social network sites, wikis, forums, chat rooms



Mobile communication – between digital devices such as mobile phones and computers. This can range from calls and texts (SMS and MMS) to instant messaging and VoIP



Share files – access to files stored on a networked drive enables collaborative working and means that files can be accessed on more than one computer



Share printers – multiple computers can share one printer, making it a cheaper option with less space required



Play games – ability to connect with other users to play online games



Access to the Internet – via a home computer network sharing the same broadband connection using Wi-Fi or wired connections or via a mobile phone network

Networks are typically created in the following places: 

Home – multiple computers can share resources, such as broadband, files and printer; home entertainment systems can be connected together throughout a household via wireless or wired connections. This is called a LAN or local area network (or WLAN: wireless local area network).



School and business – multiple workstations are connected to a mains server (a computer which holds the programs and other resources) over a LAN. Several LANs may be linked together over multiple sites creating a WAN (wide area network). A computer that is not connected to a network is called a stand-alone computer.

A network can give you the following advantages: 

A printer can be shared by more than one computer



Files can be shared between more than one computer



Applications can be shared between more than one computer



An internet connection can be shared by more than one computer



Cheap computers can access a powerful computer (e.g. a web server) which does all the work and then gives the results back to the cheap computer. An example of this working is the search engine Google.

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Types of Network There are many types of network available. 

Internet – an interconnected network of computers containing web pages (World Wide Web) which can be accessed globally. The Internet uses a WAN.



Mobile phone network – 3G (third generation) and 4G (fourth generation which supersedes 3G) is the wireless network standard used in mobile phone technology and provides wireless mobile telephone and mobile Internet connectivity (sometimes referred to as mobile broadband).



LAN and WLAN – a LAN (local area network) is a network which enables communication and sharing of files programs and printers within a single site or home. WLAN is a wireless local area network.



WAN – a WAN (wide area network) is a network which enables the communication and sharing of files, programs and printers between different sites (e.g. different campuses of a college).



Intranet – an intranet is an internal network which enables communication and information/resource sharing with other departments within an organisation. An intranet is used only by the company and its staff and can usually be accessed remotely using a password to enable home working.



Extranet – an extranet is similar to an Intranet with external access permitted to specified authorised users.



PAN – a PAN or WPAN (personal area network and wireless personal area network) enables connectivity over a short distance, using a short-range radio frequency bandwidth, to mobile devices such as mobile phones, laptops and GPS among many others (both devices need to be compatible). Bluetooth (which uses a PAN) enables hands-free use of a mobile phone by a Bluetooth headset. Because Bluetooth uses connectivity over a short-range radio frequency bandwidth, it is vulnerable to security threats.



Public – public networks are shared networks of computers providing access to a variety of public information, such as chat rooms, instant messaging and streaming video which are visible to external users. A public network connects devices via a public IP (Internet Protocol) address. The IP address identifies a computer on a network. Because they are visible over the Internet, public networks are vulnerable to security threats.



Unsecured networks – a wireless network with no security measures in place to prevent unauthorised access (hacking). Wi-Fi hotspots are public access points which operate over an unsecured network and are therefore vulnerable to security threats.



VPN – (virtual private network) a private network that is used to communicate data over a public network system and enables access to users from remote sites. One of the advantages of using a VPN is that encryption is used as added security.

Types of Network Connections Connections between computers on a network can be wired, such as cables (e.g. Ethernet, cat5 or a telephone line) or wireless (e.g. using radio waves) and run at different speeds, called the transfer rate. It is measured in bps (bits per second). Wireless networks are at risk from security threats, such as hacking, due to being more visible and accessible to other users. Devices, such as mobile phones and digital cameras, can be connected to other devices, such as a computer, in order to transfer data. This can be done using cables (wired) that insert into a USB port, or via wireless connection methods (using a card reader with a USB or FireWire interface means that the device does not have to be directly attached to the computer to transfer data). Internet-enabled devices can also connect wirelessly to the Internet using 3G and 4G (mobile broadband connectivity) and Wi-Fi. A device can also be connected wirelessly to peripherals over a short distance using Bluetooth (see below).

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Types of wired and wireless connections are shown below: 

Infrared – high-speed network access for handheld devices such as mobile phones and PDAs within a local area (infrared devices need a direct line of sight communication path in order to communicate with other devices). Digital devices use infrared light to communicate with peripherals.



Wi-Fi – a wireless connection that enables connectivity to the Internet via a portable device, such as a laptop or mobile phone. Wi-Fi exists in hotspots in public places such as shopping centres, restaurants and airports and is a convenient way of gaining access to the Internet while on the move. Wi-Fi Direct enables easy communication and the transfer of data between devices.



Bluetooth (referred to as a personal area network or PAN) enables connectivity over a short distance, using a short-range radio frequency bandwidth, to mobile devices such as mobile phones, laptops and GPS among many others (both devices need to be compatible). Bluetooth enables hands-free use of a mobile phone by use of a Bluetooth headset. Because Bluetooth uses connectivity over a short-range radio frequency bandwidth, it is vulnerable to security threats.



3G (third generation) is the wireless network standard used in mobile phone technology which provides wireless mobile telephone and mobile Internet connectivity. 4G is the next generation of faster mobile broadband.



A dongle is a portable device (an adapter which looks similar to a USB memory stick) that connects to a USB port on a computer to enable connectivity with 3G networks (enabling access to wireless broadband).



GPRS (general packet radio service) is used with 2G and 3G network services for mobile communication providing Internet access, a multimedia messaging service and IM (instant messaging). GPRS sends and receives data at higher speeds and at the same time as making a voice call.



EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution) has been replaced by 3G although some networks will switch between 3G, EDGE and Wi-Fi if the 3G signal is weak (it provides slower data transfer rates but with a stronger signal than 3G).



WAP enabled – Wireless Application Protocol supports most wireless networks and is used to connect digital devices to the Internet.



Landline network – a landline telephone signal passes through a solid wire/cable (copper or optical fibre) unlike a mobile phone which operates via wireless radio signals. The PSTN (public switched telephone network) is a network of global telephone networks consisting of telephone lines, mobile phones, satellite transmission and underwater cables.



ADSL – (asymmetric digital subscriber line) is a form of broadband Internet connection that sends data across a telephone line in the UK. Data using ADSL can be sent via both the phone line and broadband Internet communication, ensuring the user keeps permanent connection to the Internet without losing access to the phone line. ADSL requires a DSL filter or splitter to be plugged into your existing phone line socket to split the incoming signal so that it separates data and voice. ADSL users living in close proximity to a local exchange enjoy faster connection and download speeds than users who live further away. Download speeds of ADSL broadband are slower than cable and fibre optic networks (but ADSL currently has better coverage in the UK).

Latency: This is the time delay between sending and receiving data over a network. Transmission speed can be affected by the medium by which data is sent, such as wirelessly or via optical fibre. The data size will also contribute to latency.

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4.2. Network Components A network typically comprises the following: 

Modem – stands for modulator-demodulator and is required to connect devices to the Internet.



Router – is often integrated with a modem and used to connect multiple devices. Should come with a built-in firewall for security. Use a wireless router to create a completely wireless network from scratch (otherwise you will need a wireless base station / access point to connect to an existing wired network). The router and all computers on the network must share the same name (called the SSID or Service Set Identifier). A router or modem connects computers to a network or to the Internet. A router has a default password or network key which should be changed for security purposes. A router should also have a firewall to prevent unauthorised access (hacking).



Ethernet Bridge - An Ethernet bridge enables connection between different types of network (wired and wireless). For example, a wireless Ethernet bridge enables the connection of devices on a wired Ethernet network to a wireless network.

In many cases one device fulfils multiple functions, such as a modem/router/switch. A wireless router also contains a built-in access point, which enables connection to a wired router, switch or hub. 

Switch/hub/splitter – creates a network by enabling connection between multiple devices (multiple inputs to one or more output devices). A splitter is required to connect multiple inputs to one output device.



Wireless adapter – these are also referred to as network cards enabling wireless connection to a network.



Wireless base station or access point – required for connecting multiple computers to a network or a wireless network to an existing wired network.



Home server – the main computer on which shared resources are kept and backed up.

Examples of networks:  A single PC to the Internet via a modem or wirelessly using Wi-Fi  PC to PC via a router (peer-to-peer or P2P)  Multiple PCs with built-in wireless adapters connected together using a switch and a modem/router to connect to the Internet The example below shows a home network which comprises a hybrid wired and wireless network. The two PCs share a wireless connection with the printer, as well as a wired Internet broadband connection. A wireless access point is required because an existing wired broadband connection was present when the network was created. A wireless router should

Mode

Router/switch/hub m

be in a central position in the house. Computers that are nearer to the

This connects the devices to shared

Wireless

Internet access via

Access

This is required because an existing wired connection was present.

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4.3. Web Servers Usually a network will have one or more Servers which might store the programs or user’s file, hold the company website, and control the shared printers. A server is a computer which serves client computers or workstations on a network. The server contains the programs/drives and files / web pages which are shared between each workstation on the network. Individual computers on the network are called clients, and the network is called a client/server network. A web server hosts web pages which are supplied to clients (browsers).

Server

 Clients

Server-side processing involves script which is run and processed on a web server and not the end user's browser. A web server provides dynamic web pages with which an end user can interact. Search Engine servers and online forms use server side technology. Client-side processing is where a script is run and processed on an end user's browser (after a web page has loaded) which means that interaction happens within the webpage. In order for client-side scripting to run, the end user must turn on the facility to run script (some users turn this off for security reasons). A warning message will prompt the end user when a script is trying to run on their computer. The code used for scripting is usually JavaScript, but also includes HTML and CSS. Client-side processing is used for content, such as rollovers.



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

_________________________ is the time delay between sending and receiving data over a network. (7)

2.

_____________________- _______________ processing involves script which is run and processed on a web server and not the end user's browser. (6, 4)

3.

A ____________________________ is a group of connected digital devices. (7)

4.4. Transmission Modes Serial, Parallel and Bi-Directional Serial transmission is where data, in the form of bits (binary digits), is sent sequentially over a single wire, frequency or optical path. Data transfer rate is faster and less error prone than parallel transmission. Parallel transmission is where data, in the form of multiple bits, is sent simultaneously over multiple wires, frequencies or paths. This transmission method is used with some printers. Bi-directional transmission works within optical networks by enabling two directional signals to be sent non-simultaneously over a single fibre-optic wire. Printers used to use this transmission mode when PS/2 ports were in operation.

Simplex This transmission mode refers to communication that occurs in a single direction (i.e. one-way signal) and is found in radios, TV broadcasts, public address systems and surveillance cameras.

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Half-Duplex This transmission mode refers to communication that occurs non-simultaneously in two directions (i.e. two-way signal), such as in a two-way radio (e.g. one user must finish speaking before the other user speaks).

Full-Duplex This transmission mode refers to communication that occurs simultaneously in two directions, such as in landline telephones (e.g. both users may hear and speak at the same time).



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

Data transfer rate of _______________________ transmission is faster and less error prone than parallel transmission. (6)

2.

_______ - __________________________________ transmission works within optical networks by enabling two directional signals to be sent non-simultaneously over a single fibre-optic wire. (2-11)

4.5. Real-Time Communication Real-time communication refers to any instant communication over a network, such as the Internet, in the form of instant messaging, VoIP, web conferencing and chat. The hardware and software required for real-time communication are detailed below: 

Computer(s)



Speakers (often built in to device)



Microphone (often built in to device)



Web cam (if using VoIP)



Internet/network connection



Software downloaded from server to enable communication between computers (e.g. Google Talk, Skype, etc.)

CODEC CODEC stands for coder/decoder and is a device used to decode or encode a digital signal for transmission of a VoIP, audio-file and video-file conversation.

4.6. Sending Data Packet Switching Packet switching is the transmission method by which emails and web pages are sent in small packets or chunks of data (512 bytes each) over a network. This means that a large file can be sent in smaller pieces – each piece is numbered and contains coded details about the destination and the sender's IP address, along with error control bits. A router works out the fastest route and sends each piece along a different route. Each piece or packet may pass through multiple routers on its way to its destination. On arrival, ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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each packet is reordered correctly using the individual numbers provided to each piece at the start of its journey. This method is useful for large packets of data. However, packet switching is prone to latency issues. Real-time data, such as VoIP, IM and live audio/video do not use this method, instead using circuit switching where there are no delays.



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

A ____________________ works out the fastest route and sends each piece along a different route. (6)

2.

Real-time data uses ________________________________ switching where there are no delays. (7)

4.7. Alternative Transmission Methods Fibre Optic Fibre-optic cables are capable of transferring data in the form of pulsing light. Fibre-optic transmission is faster than other cable transmission methods. Fibre-optic cables are used in telephone, Internet and cable TV technology, having a lower level of interference and better performance (capable of higher data-carrying and bandwidth than electrical cable) than traditional transmission methods. Fibre-optic transmission is capable of spanning longer distances than electrical/copper wiring methods.

Wireless 





Infrared: enables devices to communicate over a short distance using short-range wireless signals, being capable of both receiving and transmitting data. Infrared technology is used within household objects, such as remote controls. Infrared works only in direct line of sight. Microwave: a means of two-way communication via radio waves, this type of transmission method also only works in direct line of sight (between antennas). Microwave transmissions can be adversely affected by bad weather. Microwave technology is used within satellite communications and radars. Satellite: satellite technology receives high-frequency, microwave signals (called an uplink) and amplifies them before sending them back to a receiver on Earth (called a downlink).

Wired Connection A wired connection can be more reliable, less inclined to latency issues and unaffected by walls or other potential signal blockers; it also has the advantage of supplying full bandwidth to each user, rather than sharing it over a wireless or cable modem with other users. Unlike a wireless connection, a wired connection is not affected by distance from the source antenna. However, wired connections are subject to damage and also have restrictions as to location of sockets, etc.



See the Data Transmission and Bandwidth section (page 34) for information on data transfer rates for wired and wireless transmission methods.

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Fibre Optic

Wireless

Transfer Speeds

Ranges

Uses

This is a faster means of data transfer, capable of up to 5 Gbps

Effective long-distance range. However, bandwidth of the signal reduces with increased distance

Used for fast transmission of telephone, Internet and cable TV

The typical standard bandwidth was approx. 54 Mbps, but with the advent of 4G this has increased to 100 Mbps (highmobility communication in vehicles) and 1 Gbps for lowmobility communication (pedestrians, etc.)

Typically short-distance ranges: within a building, within range of a transmitter or at hotspots. Wireless range is affected by the amount and type of routers and wireless access points and also the transmitter strength. Range can be affected by signal interference and obstructions

Used for wirelessly connecting peripherals to devices or accessing a mobile Internet signal via Wi-Fi or 4G

Transfer speeds of wired connections are typically around 100 Kbps

LANs are connections between devices within the same building. WAN connections are between devices across a geographical range. Transfer rates of traditional wired connections are not as fast as fibre optic

For connecting devices, such as peripherals, to a computer or TV within a home or office building or connecting a network of devices across several buildings (a typical example is a college network)

Wired



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

__________________ __________________ transmission is capable of spanning longer distances than electrical/copper wiring methods. (5, 5)

2.

Satellite technology receives high-frequency microwave signals, called an _____________________. (6)

5. Data Storage The words 'data' and 'information' are often used to refer to the same thing, but in computer terms the two are different. Data is computer generated (stored on disk or in memory on a computer) and the resulting output of data is displayed as information that a user can understand. Data storage may refer to information stored in a database or data stored on storage media, such as a hard drive, CD-ROM or memory stick.

5.1. What is a Database? A database is used for storage of information. The most common example used to describe a database is the telephone directory. The telephone directory consists of records of information detailing names, addresses and telephone numbers, all stored in an organised database management system.

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A database has many other uses: 

Library booking systems



Price lists



Customer details



Mail merge



Producing mailing labels



Producing reports

Large-scale databases are used in many areas, such as: 

Airline booking systems



Government records



Bank account records



Hospital patient records

5.2. Database Structure A database is a versatile tool and can be used to store numerical information and perform calculations – such as finding totals or averages. You can also make data available on the Internet or an intranet for interactive reporting, data entry or data analysis. Information in a database is organised in the following way: 

Each item of information, e.g. customer surname, is held in a field.



A record is a collection of fields – for example, details about each customer could be stored in a record, where the individual fields are the forename, surname, address and telephone number of a customer.



A table is a collection of records. For example, a table of customers may contain a record for each customer. There might be a number of different tables in a database.



Queries are used to look up specific data in a table – for example, to find out all the customers who live in a particular area.



Forms are used to enter new records, to edit existing records and to present data on the screen.



Reports are used to print out information from a database – for example, to print out a personalised letter to all customers or to print out a list of all customers who owe money.

An example of fields and records is shown below: Name John Smith

Address 1 5 Rowan Close

Town Chester

Date of Birth 14/06/1965

Amount Owed £120.00

The record above details information about a customer and is broken down into fields: John Smith is a field; Name is the field name (or field heading). This line of information relating to John Smith is a record and this record, along with other records relating to different customers, would make up a table of information, which would be stored in a database. Defining relationships between tables allows you to bring together data from more than one table by matching a unique field in one table with a field in another table, thereby minimising duplication of data.

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Suppose a car hire shop has a list of cars and a list of bookings. Consider the following two scenarios: 1.

The manager finds a dent in one of the cars, and wants to know how much the car cost and who has hired it.

2.

A previous customer comes in and wants to know what model they booked last time to see if they can book the same kind of car.

In both cases, information is needed from both tables. In the list of cars, each car will have a unique registration number. Therefore, it makes sense to log the registration number of the car every time a car is hired – this is the link (relationship) between each table. It means that in scenario one, the manager can use the registration number to look up everyone who has hired the car, and the previous customer can look up the registration number from their last hire and then look up the car model in the other list. The kind of relationship that is created depends on how the related fields are defined:  A one-to-many relationship is created only if one of the related fields is a primary key or has a unique index (like in the car hire shop – the registration number is unique for each car in the list of cars, but in the bookings list the same car registration can be hired many times).  A one-to-one relationship is created if both the related fields are primary keys or have unique indexes (for example, a list of cars and a list of current owners would have a one-to-one relationship between them).

5.3. Database Operation It is important to understand how a database system operates. There are different levels of database operation. For example, a user will operate an existing database which has been designed and created by a database specialist. The user enters data and interrogates the data to find results. The user can then present the resulting output in report format for a professional appearance. The user will be responsible for the maintenance of the data and for information retrieval. The database specialist designs and creates the database, so that it can be used efficiently and effectively for the intended purpose by the user. Some companies use common database software applications to manage and retrieve data, whereas other companies hire an expert to design and create a bespoke database system designed specifically for the type of data management required by the company. Online business databases can be accessed via networks, such as LANs, WANs, intranets, extranets and the Internet. Online databases may allow multiple access, subject to access levels, in order to update and edit data. However, it is likely that the data will be ultimately managed and controlled by a database supervisor. Such online databases may use software, such as customer relationship management database software used by different departments of a company to store and track customer information and orders. Most companies that employ a large-scale database system will have a database administrator to look after security aspects and usage rights. The database administrator provides access to specific data for appropriate users – these are called access rights. The database administrator is also responsible for recovery of a database after a crash or when major errors occur.

5.4. Database Management Systems A database management system (DBMS) is used by businesses to share data, control and manage redundant data, and ensure consistency and integrity of data. A DBMS is structured using SQL language (see below).

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Databases can do more than store data; they are utilised within Internet search engines which contain a vast amount of information. This data can be accessed globally by use of specific keywords or criteria (see World Wide Web).

5.5. Structured Query Language When a query is created in a database software program such as Microsoft Access, it is written using SQL language. The user does not see the SQL language, but views the results in the form of a user-friendly interface. For it to work, an SQL statement must use the correct syntax (language). An SQL SELECT statement is constructed in the following way: These are called 'operators'

SELECT = field heading FROM = table name WHERE = criterion

These are called 'identifiers'

The example shown below is of a simple SQL query to extract the Student ID for all students from the ICT department. Note: each SQL clause ends with a semicolon.

SELECT StudentID FROM Student Records WHERE Department = 'ICT';

5.6. Data Storage Media The computer has several drives for storage. You can add more drives if required, either as internal or external drives. The image below displays the icons indicating the different storage areas that may be available on a computer.

The local disk is the hard drive or C: drive and is usually located within the computer, but you can also buy an external hard drive if required. The local drive contains the programs. The other drives displayed in the image above are for removable devices – a 3½ floppy A drive, for floppy disks that take up to 1.44 MB of data, a DVD drive, and a CD-RW drive which enables up to 700MB of data to be stored (the RW means Read/Write which means that you can read from the disk and also write data onto it). The Removable (G) drive displayed above is the USB memory drive (called solid-state technology due to the lack of moving parts), capable of storing large amounts of data from megabytes to gigabytes. Removable (H) is also a USB memory drive. Other drives can be added if required, but you may need to purchase a USB hub so that you have sufficient ports to connect the devices.

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A shared or network drive may be displayed as a letter, such as G or S, depending on the number of available drive letters already used. Networked drives enable programs, files and printers to be shared between staff within the same site (called a local area network or LAN) and between sites (called a wide area network or WAN). Security restrictions placed on a protected shared or networked drive mean that files cannot be saved, altered or corrupted on the drive. There are usually other restrictions placed on a shared networked drive to ensure that files and programs cannot be viewed by unauthorised users. A login and password is usually required to log onto the drive and access rights are set to ensure that only authorised personnel can access certain areas, which may contain confidential or sensitive information. For example, personnel staff may need access to certain parts of the drive where staff records are stored but which members of staff cannot access, tutors may need access to areas where examination material is stored which students cannot access, and payroll staff may need access to areas on the shared drive which hold staff pay details. A drawback of shared networked drives is that they can sometimes become inaccessible due to network errors, and this can cause considerable disruption to staff members when it affects computers over several sites using a wide area network. This can result in loss of data, loss of customers/clients and loss of contracts, and can effectively stop workers being able to continue to work. The network administrator should be contacted to deal with any network drive problems. Hardware errors can also prevent access to drives – hard drives can become corrupt and fail, and some of the early warning signs of hard drive failure are: regular computer freezes, losing files, the computer locking up during startup, or the hard drive making strange noises. Hard drives are mechanical devices with moving parts that can wear out, so backing up important data is vital. Storage devices can range from the hard drive of the computer to removable devices, such as CD, DVD or memory sticks (these portable devices are also referred to as flash drives or USB sticks).



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

The local or hard drive contains the __________________________. (8)

2.

The A drive and flash drive are examples of _____________________________ storage. (9)

3.

_______________________ rights are usually set to ensure that only authorised personnel can access certain areas on network drives. (6)

4.

SQL stands for _______________________________ Query Language. (10)

5.

An item of data in a database is called a ___________________. (5)

6.

A table is a collection of ___________________________. (7)

7.

A database ________________________________ system (DMS) is used by businesses to share data. (10)

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B – The Internet and Exchange and Storage of Information Activity 1 – Le arning Aim B

Activity 1 Work out the answers to the questions below and write them in the relevant boxes to reveal a word in the shaded squares which is connected with this chapter.

1

1.

2

This protocol allows file transfer over the Internet. (3)

2.

Digital transmission where bits (binary digits) are sent sequentially over a single wire, frequency or optical path. (6)

3.

This affects speed of data transfer and transmission. (9)

4.

This is the abbreviated name of a web page address. (3)

5.

This converts digital signals into analogue (a standard phone line signal is analogue) and vice versa to transfer data down a phone line, operating at speeds known as transfer rates in bits per second. (5)

6.

Examples include Firefox, Internet Explorer or Google Chrome. (7)

7.

This type of link helps the user navigate to a different website (or different page within the same site). (9)

8.

This language is a means of communication between computers. (8)

9.

A company that provides Internet connectivity and support services, email and web space (abbr.). (3)

10.

A device used to decode or encode a digital signal for transmission. (5)

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

Answer to shaded squares – 5 and 5 letters.

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B – The Internet and Exchange and Storage of Information Activity 2 – Le arning Aim B

Activity 2 1. Match each example on the left to the correct description on the right.

1. Simplex

2. Half-Duplex

3. Full Duplex 2.

a. refers to communication that occurs nonsimultaneously in two directions b. refers to communication that occurs simultaneously in two directions c. refers to communication that occurs in a single direction

Fill in the blanks below:

a)

Download speeds of ADSL ____________________________ are slower than cable and fibre-optic networks. (9)

b)

A ______________ of _____________________________is an access point (i.e. a physical location) for connecting networks or communication devices to the Internet, usually comprising a server, router, modems and switches. (5, 8)

c)

A public network exchange where ISPs can connect and exchange traffic between their networks via peering arrangements is called a Network ____________________ Point. (6)

d)

Standard email protocol over the Internet and between servers. (4 abbr.) ______________

e)

An email system where emails are pushed directly to the mobile phone and a copy of the email is kept on both the server and the client device (phone, computer) is called Internet Message ____________________ ____________________________________. (6, 8)

f)

___________________ transmission is where data, in the form of bits (binary digits), is sent sequentially over a single wire, frequency or optical path. (6)

g)

Used within household objects, such as remote controls, ____________________________________ enables devices to communicate over a short distance using short-range wireless signals. (8)

h)

_____________________ __________________________________ is the transmission method by which emails and web pages are sent in small chunks of data (512 bytes each) over a network. (6, 9)

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Learning Aim C

C.

Issues with Operating Online

1. Online Issues New privacy and e-safety guidelines, such as the Digital Economy Act, have been implemented with the advent of technology and increased access to a global network. The Data Protection Act (DPA) protects computerised personal data, and software helps guard data against viruses and spyware. Technology is changing all the time and to stay safe individuals must keep up to date with new legislation. Before handing over personal information think about: 

How will it be used (look at the privacy statement or small print at the bottom of forms or websites)?



How will it be stored (governed by the DPA 1998)?



Who can gain access to it (is it accessible online on a public network)?



Is the system secure for you to transmit data (look for HTTPS or the padlock symbol on a website. If you are unsure about or don't trust a website, don't use it)?

Our personal information is stored by a variety of private and public organisations. Public bodies holding personal information about individuals include: 

Government departments and agencies



Local authorities



National Health Service



Police



Department for Work and Pensions (DWP)



HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC)



Passport Office



Driver and Vehicle Licensing Authority (DVLA)



Schools and education authorities

Private sector organisations include: 

Banks and other financial institutions (plus credit reference agencies)



Supermarkets (loyalty cards)



Telephone and utility companies



Transport operators (using smart card technology)

! Be cautious about fake security alerts and do not respond when pop-up ads appear informing you that spyware or a virus has been detected on your computer. ! Take care when downloading software or programs from the Internet as you may unwittingly download a virus or spyware at the same time.

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1.1. Threats to Data Malicious Programs Understand Malicious Programs It is important to protect your computer against malicious programs, such as viruses, worms, Trojan horses, spyware and adware. A virus is a program that can spread from one computer to another and can cause damage through corruption and loss of data. Sending infected email attachments or loading programs from the Internet can spread viruses. You must be careful when downloading Internet pages and only download information from a site that you trust and know is safe, as you may unwittingly introduce a virus to your system. How Malicious Programs Work A Trojan horse is a malicious program that can be received through downloads from the Internet. They can appear just like harmless files, but when opened can cause damage to your computer. Unlike viruses, they do not spread by themselves. To protect your computer from Trojan horses, only download from sites that you know and trust. A worm is a malicious program that can spread outside your operating system and can copy itself between computers via email. It differs from a virus in that it can copy itself from system to system. Viruses can be detected through decreased system performance, missing data, inability to use your hard drive and unusual messages that appear on your screen. Virus

Worm

Trojan horse

Malicious program that infects your computer system and can be passed on via email and removable storage devices.

A program that can spread and replicate itself between computers via email.

Deceptive program usually received through Internet downloads. They do not spread by themselves.

Spyware is a malicious program that can secretly monitor and track a user without their knowledge. Types of information that spyware may collect are personal details and also details of online activities. Adware is commercial software designed to display adverts on a user's computer (sometimes called 'pop-ups'). Be aware that some types of adware, such as spyware, are designed to monitor and track a user via keystrokes, hard drive and online activity. Because the user's preferences are being monitored, the advertisements can be targeted at the individual. This ensures that the advertiser's marketing is more effective. Rogue diallers are software programs, installed on a user's computer without their knowledge, that dial a premium-rate (expensive) number when the user connects to the Internet. This is achieved by disconnecting the user from the telephone line and connecting them instead to a premium-rate line. This can result in large telephone bills. Rogue dialling only affects users with dial-up connections. This malicious piece of software can be downloaded unknowingly alongside other software programs, through spam mail (see above) and also through pop-up ads (adware). The watchdog formerly known as ICSTIS – the Independent Committee for the Supervision of Standards of the Telephone Information Services – has issued guidelines for dealing with rogue diallers.

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Spyware

Adware

Rogue Diallers

Malicious program that secretly monitors a user

An advertising program that enables pop-up adverts on a user's computer

Software to disconnect a user and connect instead to a premium-rate phone line

Hacking A hacker can refer to a skilled programmer but is commonly used to describe someone who uses unauthorised access to invade another user's computer to secretly read files, or steal or destroy data. A hacker will find information about a subject or target and then work out the best infiltration method, based on any weaknesses found in the computer system. A hacker will use various types of software to gain unauthorised access and get past firewalls and crack passwords. One of these is a 'spoofing attack' which involves masquerading as a reputable site or program to gain information such as login and password details.

1.2. Security Measures Using Antivirus/Spyware Programs It is vital that you install antivirus and anti-spyware software and use it regularly to scan your computer for threats and viruses. It is important that virus detection software is updated regularly because new viruses are created every day. Use antivirus software to scan files that are downloaded from the Internet or received through email. There are several versions of anti-spyware and virus protection software available. Anti-spyware software is designed to block and remove any threats and some versions are free for non-commercial customers (e.g. Defender software with Windows Vista). Antivirus software scans a computer system for existing viruses. The two most common packages are Norton Antivirus and McAfee VirusScan. These protection software programs will quarantine or delete any worm, virus or Trojan horse that it locates, before they can damage your computer. Most major antivirus software also includes anti-spyware in the package. Be aware that fake anti-spyware software exists. Be very careful about responding to pop-up ads that claim that spyware has been detected on your computer. Do not respond to requests to click a button or link to fix the problem, as this may result in spyware being downloaded on your computer! Virus protection software can remove viruses and attempt to repair any damage – this procedure is called disinfecting. If the antivirus software detects a virus that it does not recognise, it will quarantine it. You can then delete the infected file or request information from the antivirus software support team (access the antivirus website and look for details). The best virus protection software is one that will check email before it has been processed by your computer. You can set the software so that it scans your computer system on a regular basis at a certain time, or run it manually. The software can be installed as an icon on the desktop, as a menu command within the Start menu or as a button on the taskbar. Open the software and then choose which drives, folders and files to scan, and select the option to start scanning. The virus-scanning process will take place and the selected drives/files/folders will be scanned for any known viruses. If a virus is detected it will request what action should be taken. Virus protection software can also be set to run continuously to guard a system from new viruses. ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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If you want to change your antivirus software and install a new program, you will need to uninstall the current antivirus software that exists on your computer before installing the new one. Problems can occur if you try to install two different antivirus programs. Good practice… points to remember! 

Install antivirus and anti-spyware software.



Regularly update antivirus software.



Scan the system regularly for threats.



Scan any removable storage device for viruses before opening files.



Only download from Internet sites that you know and trust.

Updating Antivirus Software Virus protection software can usually be updated by downloading the current virus list from the Internet. It is important to continuously update your version of virus protection software because it will only find and disinfect known viruses. There are several antivirus programs on the market, some free (such as AVG) or at varying prices (e.g. Norton, McAfee). Software should be kept updated as new viruses are being created and discovered on a regular basis. For best results you should set up automatic scanning of incoming and outgoing email and arrange for a full system weekly virus scan. A good antivirus program will identify threats and either delete them (this is called disinfecting) or quarantine them for later deletion. Symptoms of a virus are:  Unfamiliar messages appearing  The computer working slowly  Programs freezing  The screen may look odd with parts of the screen obscured  Eventually the computer may grind to a complete halt and the only solution may be to format your hard drive

Firewalls A firewall blocks unauthorised access from a private network and prevents leakage of information through theft or hackers and malicious information gaining access to your system through viruses, worms, etc. A firewall can also be installed to block an IP address (an IP address identifies your computer).

Secure Websites and Encryption Data, such as personal or financial details, that is transmitted via a network, particularly a wireless, public or unsecured network, is prone to security threats. With the ever-increasing threat of sensitive information being intercepted, such as during financial transactions over the Internet, it is vital to secure data. To ensure security, you can obtain a digital certificate which will establish your credentials and ensure that information is encoded (called encryption). Encryption makes data incomprehensible but can be decrypted by ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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the receiver. This is worked by using a key which is known only to the sender and receiver. Text that has been encrypted is called cipher text. There are many encryption data security software products on the market. Text files, email messages or any computerised data can be encrypted to protect the contents from intruders. Many offer data security consultations, which is important to every organisation in today's global marketplace. Text files, e-mail messages or any computerised data can be encrypted to protect the contents from intruders. Encryption only ensures security of data in transit – systems should also be protected using a Firewall to prevent leakage of information through theft or hackers and malicious information gaining access to your system through viruses, worms etc. A Firewall is a particularly important measure if you have an always-on connection (Broadband) to safeguard your computer against unauthorised access. When purchasing goods over the Internet, you should ensure that the site offers protection and security before giving account details. Look for the padlock symbol on the address bar that denotes a secure server, or URLs that start with https. A reputable company that deals with customer financial transactions should encrypt (code) these details before allowing transmission over the Internet. Protected sites will request a username and password before access is allowed – most large online supermarkets use protected websites.

Authorisation Sensitive and confidential information is at risk of unauthorised access if the correct security procedures are not followed. The best way to ensure security of data is to use a login and password to access a computer system. Types of information that can be at risk of unauthorised access are financial information, personal details, health records and social security details. Using default (existing passwords supplied by the product) passwords and settings on computers, networks or programs increases the risk of security threats. It is important to change default passwords to a password that cannot be easily guessed or cracked by a hacker. A router/modem has a default password / network key which should be changed to prevent unauthorised access.

Logging On It is important that you understand how to start and shut down an ICT system correctly. Computers which are part of a network, such as in a bank or in schools and colleges, have a login procedure which includes entering a username and password to access the system. Some logins only give access to specific parts of an ICT system. Gaining access to sensitive or confidential information may require a different login which is only available to certain personnel. It is important to ensure that an ICT-based system is shut down correctly, ensuring that you have logged off any sites and that all programs and windows are closed. Exiting an ICT system correctly can help to prevent hardware damage. It is vital that organisations use identification to verify authorisation or access to a computer system. A user ID, usually referred to as a username or login, and password are essential to ensuring the security of private and sensitive information. Most organisations need passwords to gain access to systems and to enable editing rights. A company or educational establishment that uses a network would require users to be allocated a login name (username) and password to be able to access the network drives and resources. Access rights are the levels of access provided by user IDs – these must be monitored and controlled to ensure that only certain personnel have access to particular areas on the system. For instance, a network manager would have access allowing him/her the rights to make changes on the network. ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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Passwords/PINs Most ICT systems require a password or PIN before access is granted. To prevent unauthorised access, you should use a password to log onto the system. A password should be strong, e.g. contain a random mix of letters and numbers that have no personal significance (e.g. does not include personal dates or names) and cannot be easily guessed. For example, do not use dates of birth or other significant dates, or mother's maiden name or pets' names. Not only does this make it easier for an unauthorised user to enter your ICT system, but it also provides them with your personal details which can be used in identity theft and fraud. Passwords should be changed regularly and never shared with anyone else. Most passwords are case sensitive which means that you can also mix upper- and lower-case letters (e.g. TkLMn). An example of a strong password: TnJKL18$*@ A weak password is one that can be easily guessed or 'cracked' by a fraudster. Examples of weak passwords are: 

Mother's maiden name



Your date of birth



Your birthplace



Your name



The word 'password'



Using the top line on the keyboard (e.g. QWERTY or 123456)

Never divulge your password to anyone else and be careful not to leave written evidence of passwords for others to find. Don't be tempted to share your password with friends, relatives or colleagues or allow them to access your system with your password as your details could be passed on, perhaps mistakenly or carelessly, without your knowledge. Be cautious about providing personal details via email and never provide your password over email in response to a request from an organisation, such as a bank or mobile phone provider – they will never request you to do this, so any such messages should be viewed with caution. To keep passwords secure, they should be changed regularly. To change a computer password, you may need to go through the system administrator or change it yourself in Windows at the Command Prompt if you have administrator rights. You will be requested to confirm your old password and then requested to enter your new password (and then confirm it). The new password must be markedly different from the previous password before it will be accepted. A PIN (personal identification number) is used to access debit and credit cards when using cash machines to withdraw money or view balances, or to make a card purchase in a shop. The latter requires the customer to insert their card into a chip and PIN machine (or swipe card reader) and enter their four-digit PIN. The chip refers to the microchip on the card which is read by the machine and used to verify the card as authentic. Transactions by credit or debit card via the Internet, telephone or mail order do not use a PIN; the customer is required to provide the card number and a security number (on the back of the card). To change a PIN you will need to contact the bank or credit card company with which you hold the card. ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

If the antivirus software detects a virus that it does not recognise, it will _____________________________________ it. (10)

2.

____________________________ is a malicious program that can secretly monitor and track a user without their knowledge. (7)

3.

A ____________________ __________________ is a malicious program that can be received through downloads from the Internet. (6, 5)

4.

A _____________________________ blocks unauthorised access from a private network. (8)

5.

An __________ address identifies your computer. (2)

6.

Someone who uses unauthorised access to invade another user's computer to secretly read files or steal or destroy data is called a ____________________. (6)

7.

_________________ ___________________ are levels of access provided by user IDs – these must be monitored and controlled to ensure that only certain personnel have access to particular areas on the system. (6, 6)

8.

A __________ is used to access debit and credit cards when using cash machines to withdraw money or view balances, or to make a card purchase in a shop. (3)

9.

To keep passwords secure they should be ___________________________ regularly. (7)

10. Text that has been encrypted is called _________________________ text. (6)

1.3. Backing Up Data To ensure the safety of your data, it is important to save your work regularly. Data can become corrupt or be damaged for a variety of reasons, such as water or heat damage (e.g. due to flooding or fire), theft, and virus infection. For this reason it is vital that you back up your work regularly onto a removable storage device, such as a CD, DVD or memory stick. 

A CD (Compact Disk) can store up to 700 MB and is commonly used to store data and audio files.



A single-sided, single-layered DVD can store up to 4.7 gigabytes of data and is commonly used to store data and movie files (a double-sided, double-layered DVD can hold a lot more).



A memory stick (also referred to as a flash drive or USB stick) is a portable storage device which is inserted into the USB (Universal Serial Bus) port of a computer. It is a small device which enables data to be easily transferred between computers. A memory stick can hold large amounts of data, such as text, image, sound and movie files.

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Backing up data is important in the event of a disk or drive failure, fire, theft or corruption. Data should always be backed up onto a removable storage device and kept off-site. Remote backup services are provided by ISPs over broadband Internet connections, providing convenient access to files over the Internet and the ability to share files with friends, family or colleagues, using a password. It also allows a user to protect files by enabling automatic backup. For data security reasons, this form of storage is not recommended for confidential or sensitive data. Important and valuable information may also be stored on small removable storage devices, such as USB memory sticks. It is important to keep all portable and removable devices safe from theft. This means ensuring that they are stored safely and securely. Portable devices, such as laptops and notebooks, can have tracing software installed that tracks the location of the stolen device when it is connected to the Internet. Other security devices include attaching ID tags and security cables. If you only store important data in one storage area, such as the hard drive of your computer, it could be lost in the event of a computer problem – so it is vitally important that data is backed up regularly onto a removable storage device, such as a floppy disk, zip drive, CD-R, DVD, USB memory drive or magnetic tape. Computer problems could result from:  Power surges or power loss  Hard drive failure  Corruption from viruses and/or security threats, such as hackers Data can also be lost as a result of:  Fire  Flooding  Theft  Accidental deletion Data should be backed up regularly and kept in a secure place, preferably off-site away from the original location. Backups are the last line of defence and other methods should also be implemented to ensure that data is secure and safe. One limitation of backing up data regularly is the issue of storage space required for the disks or CDs, and also the extra costs incurred in purchasing the removable storage media. Data storage requirements can be quite considerable in larger companies, and the problem is compounded if the backed-up data is being stored off-site. It is good practice to keep a log of backed-up data so that you can keep track of dates that data has been stored on a rotational basis. Magnetic tape is the common media for backing up large amounts of data, while a floppy disk, capable of storing 1.44 MB, is only used to store small amounts of data. Solid-state media, such as memory drives, can hold comparatively large amounts of data (from megabytes up to gigabytes) and are portable and easy to use between different computers. Remote backup services are also being provided by ISPs over broadband Internet connections – this form of storage is not recommended for confidential or sensitive data.

Deleting and Restoring Files When you delete items from the hard drive they will be sent to the Recycle Bin, where they can be restored or permanently deleted if required. Files and folders deleted from the A drive or flash drive will be deleted without the option of being restored. For this reason, you should be very careful when deleting files or folders from the flash drive or other removable drive. The Recycle Bin icon is situated on the desktop and this icon will change depending on whether the Recycle Bin is empty or contains deleted files. ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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The following items cannot be restored from the Recycle Bin: 

Files/folders deleted from network locations



Files/folders deleted from removable storage media, such as memory sticks



Files/folders which are larger than the storage capacity of the Recycle Bin

The Recycle Bin gives you the option of restoring deleted files and folders (remember, files and folders on the USB drive will be deleted permanently and cannot be restored from the Recycle Bin).

Safe Software Storage Software is normally stored on the hard drive of your computer, in a folder called Program Files. It is important that the hard drive is backed up so that, in the event of hard drive failure, all programs are saved. Microsoft Windows has its own backup wizard that takes you step-by-step through the backup process. It is best to back up all data on the computer and create a system backup disk in the event of a system crash or hard drive failure. This may take a long time if you have a large amount of software installed on your computer.

Recover Lost Data In addition to recovering data from the Recycle Bin or restoring files from a removable backup medium or Windows Backup, recovery programs exist that can recover lost files and data. When a file is deleted it is not removed from the hard drive, unless overwritten by another file. Therefore, it is possible to retrieve it using a recovery program. Recovery programs are available to download as freeware and as purchased software (requiring a software licence or agreement). There are also companies that specialise in data recovery. Microsoft Windows© offers a restore facility where files can be restored from Windows Backup or recovered from previous versions (previous versions are also called shadow copies). Restore from Windows Backup: Go to Control Panel, System and Maintenance and then Backup and Restore. Follow instructions to restore files. Restore from previous version: Go to the Computer window and then select the Restore previous versions option. Drag relevant files to a location on which the restored files are to be saved.



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

To ensure the safety of your data, it is important to _______________ your work regularly. (4)

2.

A ________________________ _____________________ is a portable storage device which is inserted into the USB (Universal Serial Bus) port. (6, 5)

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1.4. Security Issues with Social Networking Stay Safe It is important that you respect confidentiality and take care when disclosing your own or other people’s personal details. For example, before sharing photos across a social network group which may contain images of friends, ask their permission first. In a workplace situation it is important that you do no disclose confidential information about the company or personal details about your colleagues: You should be aware of the dangers of passing on:  Confidential company information, unless authorised to do so  Details of computer protection or security  Colleagues’ or friends’ personal details, such as addresses or telephone numbers There are many social network sites providing chat rooms, forums, email and instant messaging which allow you to post information about yourself and communicate with other users. When using these sites, users should be cautious about what personal information is disclosed as they may be viewed by complete strangers. To avoid the danger of a stranger getting hold of your personal details and using them for fraudulent purposes, limit the people who are allowed to contact you via the site. Never give your address, date of birth, telephone number, personal photos or email address on a social network site. And, unless you are confident that only your friends can see the information, don’t include your full name either. Never allow a stranger to locate you via the information you provide on social network sites. It is important that you respect confidentiality and take care when disclosing other people’s personal details. Ask your friends’ permission before sharing information about them, for example their photos or personal details, across a social network group. Always conform to the rules of netiquette (Internet etiquette) by using appropriate language. Using inflammatory or bad language and being deliberately provocative by using insulting, abusive terms designed to create bad feeling (called flaming) can get you kicked off certain forums and chat rooms. Using capital letters is considered SHOUTING in online communication and should be avoided. Be very careful about inciting strong feelings in regard to gender, race or creed and do not use harassing or bullying behaviour. If you experience harassment or bullying behaviour from another user, do not respond to them directly, but do follow the correct complaint procedure to register your concern. To avoid the possibility of a stranger using your details for fraudulent purposes, you should never provide the following information on a social networking site: 

Your address



Your date of birth



Photographs containing you or friends



Telephone number



Email address

Respect Others Always use appropriate language when communicating on a social networking group or chat room / forum. Be careful not to use inflammatory or bad language or be insulting or disrespectful to others. Using bad language or language designed to make people angry is called flaming and can get a user banned from online forums. Be careful to respect the views of other people and be tolerant towards gender, age or cultural differences. Always ask permission before communicating another person's views or opinions. ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

Using bad language on a social network is called ___________________________. (7)

2.

Before sharing photos across a social network group which may contain images of friends, ask their _____________________________________________. (10)

1.5. Appropriate Use of Data A number of issues arose from the computerisation of data, which meant that there was an increased threat to personal privacy. The speed and power of computers enables them to store a vast amount of data, which can be retrieved quickly and easily from a number of access points. Once stored, it can then be transferred with great speed and ease, or combined with other data in ways that had not been possible in a non-computerised system. Inappropriate use of data has become more of a problem due to the advent of the Internet and email. Email is a means of communication between staff and external links and allows attachments to be sent. This means that information can be sent and received anywhere in the world quickly and efficiently. It also means that members of staff have access to a means of transferring inappropriate data to other colleagues or external sources outside the organisation. The organisation's privacy policy will detail what information employees are allowed to disclose to clients or customers. It is important that you follow your organisation's privacy policy. Non-compliance with this policy may result in penalties such as suspension from your job or loss of your job completely. Large organisations should have an information security policy, which sets out responsibilities of staff in regard to ID policy, breaches of security and reporting incidents. All organisations that store personal details of individuals must conform to the Data Protection Act. In some organisations, employees are expected to sign an Acceptable Use Policy which sets out rules and guidelines for computer users. An Acceptable Use Policy should ensure that each member of staff is aware of the penalties due to breach of the policy, and agrees on acceptable use of the Internet. It should also contain guidance on computer protection and security such as use of passwords. An organisation’s Acceptable Use Policy should contain references to viewing or downloading offensive, obscene or inappropriate material from any source and storing and transfer of such images or text using the organisation’s equipment. It should also include guidelines or company rules on using a computer system for ecommerce, online banking, downloading (music, software, games) and playing of online games. Organisations can help reduce the risk of policy contravention by the following methods: 

Filtering software – this uses keywords to restrict access to sites



Disallowing access to webmail and chat rooms



Monitoring emails and sites accessed on the Internet

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Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blank below to complete the sentence:

1.

An _______________________________ Use Policy sets out rules and guidelines for computer users. (10)

1.6. Email Security and Confidentiality To ensure the confidentiality of an email address, enter it in the BCC field (blind carbon copy) and the address will be hidden from other recipients of the same email message. Before sending a message or photographs to recipients in a contacts list, think about whether it is appropriate to send it to each of the recipients in the contact list. Some of the recipients may not know each other and may not want others to see their photos, email address or other details. Ask permission before sending photographs of people to other recipients. There are certain measures that you should take before sending a file as an attachment: 

Check the size of the file before sending it to ensure that it does not exceed the size limit allocated by your email server and that the recipient will be able to receive the file – some inboxes limit the number of stored messages allowed and a limit may also be placed on the size of message that can be received. This may mean that the recipient will not be able to receive files over a specific size.



The recipient’s email program may have virus protection that blocks HTML graphics (Outlook Express has this setting) and certain file types, such as database files or program files (.exe). Check that the recipient can receive the type of file that you are sending. Also check that the recipient has the relevant software so that they can open the file.



If the recipient’s computer is connected to a network of computers at college or work, they will be allocated a certain amount of space in their inbox to receive messages – if your message exceeds the allowed size limit, the recipient will not be able to download it. The network manager may also have placed restrictions on receiving certain file types. Virus protection can restrict what you receive via email.

When using email, never download an attachment if you don’t recognise the sender and never click a HTML link that opens a web page. Attached files with the following file extensions shouldn’t be opened unless you trust the sender: 

.lnk – shortcut link



.exe – program file



.htm – web page

You should also take care when downloading software or programs from the Internet as you may unwittingly download a virus or spyware at the same time. Sending infected email attachments or loading programs from the Internet can spread viruses. If you are unsure of the email and don’t recognise the sender, delete the message without opening it. If you know that the message is genuine and from a known and trusted sender, you should still take care when opening and saving attached files. Never open file attachments with the following file extensions: .vb or .vbs, .exe, .lnk, .bat. Some content may be automatically blocked by your email server’s software, such as HTML, ActiveX, macros, database files and executable program files. You must be careful when downloading Internet pages and only download information from a site that you trust and know is safe, as you may unwittingly introduce a virus to your system. Viruses can also be spread through copying or opening files (or programs) from removable storage devices, such as floppy disks. Ensure that your antivirus software will scan incoming and outgoing mail for viruses and also scan disk drives for threats. ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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Email Confidentiality An email message has a TO field in which to enter the email address of the recipient. An example of an email address is: [email protected] Several email addresses can be added to the TO field, separated by a semicolon (;). If you want to copy the message to another recipient, enter their email address in the CC (carbon copy) field.

PRIVATE & CONFIDENTIAL

To ensure that an email recipient’s address is kept private from other recipients of the same email message, you should place the email addresses of all recipients in the BCC box (BCC stands for blind carbon copy). This ensures that recipients of the message will only see their own email address and not those of the other recipients. When forwarding an email from one person to another, protect the privacy of the original sender by deleting their email address from the transaction details (transaction details appear at the top of a message and include the sender, the recipient, the date, time and subject).

Saving Attachments You should take care when opening file attachments from unknown senders and use antivirus software to scan files that are downloaded from the Internet or received through email. A message containing a file attachment is indicated by the paper clip symbol at the left-hand side of the message. Please note that, if you experience problems in receiving messages with file attachments, it may be because of the message size or due to security restrictions in your email program. Many email servers limit the size of messages that you can receive and you are allocated a size limit for the amount of messages you can store in your mail inbox. Your email server settings and/or network settings (if your computer is connected to a network of computers at work or your training centre) may also restrict you from viewing certain file types or content, such as ActiveX controls, macros and HTML graphics. Never click HTML content in an unsolicited message – this alerts the sender that your address is valid and you may then become a victim of nuisance spam mail. You may not be able to view certain attachments, such as database files and program files due to file-type restrictions that the email server or network manager has applied. Never open file attachments with the following file extensions: .vb or .vbs, .exe, .lnk, .bat.

Unwanted Messages Understand The Term 'Spam’ Spam is the name given to unsolicited mail. Spam might include the following: 

Emails from organisations who want to sell you something. These are often in different countries and are often illegally selling medication or pornography



Emails from people suggesting you need to go a website, for example a bank website, and log in (see phishing)



Random emails from virus programs – often these do not do any direct harm but are aiming to replicate themselves millions of times or to overload the email infrastructure



Chain emails asking you to pass them on, often from friends.



Emails from organisations you are a member of – these are not always technically spam but are often considered to be spam by people who get too much email

Do Not Open or Respond to Spam Some spammers will send out an email to random email addresses at a domain. So for example, they might email [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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Anyone that replies is then placed on an active spam list which is sold to multiple dubious organisations, who will then attempt to market their wares. So avoid responding to spam emails, or emails from someone you don’t know. Many junk email senders put an image URL in the message, known as a web beacon. When the message is opened or previewed, it sends a signal back to the sender that your email is active and you become a target for spam email. So if an email is from someone you don’t know: 

NEVER open them



NEVER click HTML links



NEVER view images



NEVER respond to adverts

Reducing Unwanted Messages In order that customers can unsubscribe, reputable organisations will normally provide an opt-out link at the bottom of each email they send. Sometimes this will unsubscribe you directly. Sometimes it will take you to a webpage where you have options as to which mailing lists you subscribe to. Reputable, but smaller, organisations may not have the technology set up to give you the opt-out link. However, they will normally take you off the mailing list if you respond asking them to do so. If you do receive unwanted, nuisance marketing mail then contact the Information Commissioner. The Information Commissioner's Office is the UK's independent public body set up to promote access to official information and to protect personal information. They handle complaints relating to the Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulations 2003 (this covers unsolicited electronic marketing messages such as telephone, fax, email and text messages). Visit their website at www.ico.gov.uk. The Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulations (PECR) state that companies can only send you messages if you have provided consent or if you are an existing customer. If you are an existing customer with a company, you can unsubscribe and request that the company does not send you any more emails. Use Anti-Spam Software Webmail is email that you access through a website – for example, Yahoo Mail, Google Mail or Hotmail. They will automatically filter out some emails for you, and some provide the option to have suspicious emails filtered out too. If you are accessing your email through software such as Outlook, you can install a spam filter. This is sometimes provided with your email software, or built into your email software. Spam filters move suspect mail into a separate folder. The contents of the folder can be viewed by the user and any messages that are not spam can be reinstated to the inbox. The user can choose to have unwanted mail deleted after a specified time period.

! Be careful about opening emails and attachments from senders that you do not know. They may contain viruses or other threats that can be downloaded onto your computer or spread to other users via email.

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Hoaxes Different Types of Hoaxes There are different types of hoax that you may receive while your computer is online, such as: 

Scams: a scam can be an email message that requests the recipient to click a link in the message to take them to a page where they are then requested to enter their personal details. The message may be masquerading as a prize notification or bank. Never respond to this type of email and certainly never click a link within a message or supply details about yourself. Some scams are via fake websites.



Virus hoaxes: sometimes also referred to as false alarms or scares, virus hoaxes are pop-up ads which tell you that a virus has been detected. The advert is a hoax designed to get the user to buy software or to download spyware onto the user's computer. Some hoaxes will offer free computer scans. Some scares and false alarms come in the form of an email with dire warnings about dangerous viruses and how your computer will be affected. These emails will name reputable companies as their source, such as Microsoft. Recipients of the email will be urged to forward it on to colleagues, family and friends.



Chain mail: these are designed to get users to send the message on to a specified amount of people, who will then resend it to the same number of people, thereby creating a chain. The chain mail message may be in the form of jokes, get-rich-quick schemes or sentimental messages. The original message usually promises a reward for forwarding the message and a warning of bad luck for non-compliance (sometimes the threat is implicit rather than explicit, but still a threat nevertheless).

Check for Hoaxes If you receive an email from someone you don’t know, then use the following checklist to help identify hoaxes: 

A hoax message may masquerade as a reputable email address but with minor changes – check the email address carefully. When the email address properties are checked, the address usually bears no resemblance to the displayed address. The message may include >>>> or other symbols, such as percentage signs. At first glance, scam messages alleging to come from a reputable source may appear to be genuine, but can usually be identified by spelling errors or some differences in the logo.



Sometimes the email address is similar to the organisation's real email address, but with some differences or alterations.



Do they request money?



If something sounds too good to be true, it usually is! Remember, you don't get anything for nothing.



Check out any sources that are listed.



Check the tone of the message – hoaxes often use language designed to cause anxiety and get a response, so language is often URGENT!!!! with exclamation marks



Does the message contain an HTML link to a web page which you are asked to click?



If the email sender or website is commercial, check with other similar sites whether any claims that are made can be verified.



If you are not sure, search a phrase from the email in a search engine such as Google to see if anyone else has already identified the email as a hoax/scam email.

ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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C – Issues with Operating Online



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

.exe denotes an ___________________________________________ (11)

2.

____________________ filters move suspect mail into a separate folder. (4)

3.

An image URL in a junk mail message which alerts the sender that the mail account is active is known as a web ________________________________. (6)

4.

A user should never click on an HTML ____________________ within an email. (4)

5.

Some scams operate via ______________________ websites. (4)

1.7. Identify Theft Understanding Phishing Phishing means impersonating another person with fraudulent intentions. Phishing is usually performed by sending an email to a user falsely claiming to be an established, legitimate company or institution, such as a bank, to scam the user into giving private information that will be used for identity theft. The email directs the user to a website where they are asked for personal information, such as their password, credit card details and bank account numbers. The email message may also direct the user to click a link that will take them to a website which is also false and is used to gather personal information. Phishing Trip A common phishing tactic is to send an email to thousands of people telling them that they have just reset their bank login passwords, e.g. for HSBC, and that they should follow the link to the HSBC website to login. Then the very small proportion of the recipients who happened to have just reset their HSBC password are lulled into thinking it is an official bank email, when in fact the link takes them to an illegal website.

Understanding Identity Theft and Disclosure of Information Identity theft involves collecting personal details through fraudulent means. This information can then be used for harassment, identity fraud or other scams. Be aware that identity theft can result in bad credit rating. Never click a hyperlink within an email from an unknown sender, but delete the message immediately. Never respond to a request to divulge personal details or financial details within an email from an unknown sender or one purporting to be from your bank. If you are contacted about changes to your account or to confirm billing arrangements, do not click the link provided in the message. Contact the bank or vendor directly by phone if you are not sure. Online banks are a target for phishing, so remember that a bank will never ask you to give ID logons, passwords or account numbers in an email message. Scam messages alleging to come from your bank may be copied from real messages and so appear to be genuine. Sometimes the email address is similar to the bank’s real email address, but with some differences such as percentage signs or other alterations.

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C – Issues with Operating Online

Data Theft Before leaving your computer unattended, you should either log off or lock the computer so that it cannot be accessed by an unauthorised user in your absence. An unauthorised user, once they have gained access to your computer and the data that it holds, can do the following: 

Read confidential files



Delete or edit files



Access levels of information, subject to your own access rights



Change your password so that you cannot access your computer



Pass on confidential information to a third party



Read your emails and forward messages or send messages in your name

Data theft can be prevented by locking a computer or other hardware using a security cable. A security cable works on a laptop or notebook computer by attaching a cable in the built-in security slot on the side of the computer and fastening it to an immovable or stationary object (e.g. desk leg).

Security Checks To ensure security of data, do the following checks: 

Check your Internet security settings



Check that the firewall is on



Check that a phishing filter is on



Check that pop-ups are blocked



Check the last time that your computer was scanned for viruses



Ensure that your password is changed regularly



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

_______________________________ means impersonating another person with fraudulent intentions. (8)

2.

A _____________ is used to access debit and credit cards when using cash machines to withdraw money or view balances, or to make a card purchase in a shop. (3)

3.

Data _______________________ can be prevented by locking a computer or other hardware using a security cable. (5)

1.8. Privacy Monitoring Activity and the 'Big Brother' State The risk of new threats to public and personal security has resulted in the advent of new technology which monitors activity and scans for threats. Biometric scanners are used in the police force, airports and other security sensitive areas for face recognition, DNA and fingerprinting.

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C – Issues with Operating Online

CCTV (Closed Circuit TV) cameras are increasingly used in public areas such as shopping centres and car parks to monitor unlawful activity. This can result in concern about a 'big brother state' where our actions are being watched 24/7. Road rule enforcement cameras are used to monitor unlawful activity on the roads, such as speed violations.

The Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003 This is a law that prevents direct marketing, via telephone, SMS or email, without consent (e.g. cold calling and transmitting automatic recorded messages). It also states that a person cannot store information or gain access to stored information about a subscriber unless the subscriber agrees or is given the opportunity to refuse. A provider of a public electronic communications system must ensure that it is secure. The provider must erase (or modify so that it is no longer personal data) the subscriber's details from the network once a subscriber has opted out of an agreement.

! A marketing email must give an existing subscriber the ability to opt out of further messages. This is usually a small link at the end of an email message which the user must click to be taken to an unsubscribe page. ! To be taken off a mailing list, contact the Direct Marketing Association (http://www.dma.org.uk) or register for the Mailing Preference Service (http://www.mpsonline.org.uk) or call the sender's customer service department and ask to be taken off their mailing list. ! Spam is the name given to unsolicited or bulk mail. You can avoid spam mail by using a spam filter and by not clicking on links within email messages from unknown senders. NEVER respond to spam mail. Visit http://www.ico.gov.uk for more information.

Blagging This refers to the illegal trade in confidential information (e.g. within journalism and private investigations), such as information about the whereabouts of a person or embarrassing secrets (usually celebrities or politicians). Blagging involves gaining information through deception (pretending to be someone else in order to gain the other person's confidence). ! Section 55 of the DPA 1998 makes it an offence to obtain, disclose or procure the disclosure of personal information knowingly or recklessly, without the consent of the organisation holding the information.

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C – Issues with Operating Online

Freedom of Information Act 2000 Under the act, public organisations must provide an individual with access to their personal information when requested. ! The National Identity Register, which would have kept details of every person in a central location and made ID cards compulsory, has been abolished by the current coalition government.



Practice Makes Perfect Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

1.

Under the _________________________ of Information Act 2000, public organisations must provide an individual with access to their personal information when requested. (7)

2.

__________________________________ refers to the illegal trade of confidential information (e.g. within journalism and private investigations). (8)

3.

______________________ _________________________ TV (CCTV) cameras are increasingly used in public areas such as shopping centres and car parks to monitor unlawful activity. (6, 7)

Responsible Use With the widespread use of video/camera phones, it has become easier to take pictures of people or situations or make recordings without the subject's consent or knowledge. Video and photo sharing sites, such as YouTube, and social networking sites provide a platform for sharing images and video clips. When this is done without consent, it is an invasion of the subject's privacy and can lead to embarrassment, hostility and, in some cases, legal action being taken. Always ask permission before uploading data about another person. Always respect confidentiality and don't give out personal information about other people. Be careful who you copy emails to – clicking Reply All sends the message to everyone on the original recipient list. Use the bcc field to enter addresses so that they are kept confidential from other recipients.

1.9. Legal Stuff Software Copyright When software is legally installed on a computer, it is allocated a Product ID number to show that it is registered. An end-user agreement provides legal details regarding permission of use. A single software licence gives a user the right to install and use the software on their computer. A multi-user site licence allows the software to be installed and used by a specified number of users on a computer network. A licence holder does not have the right to share the software with anyone else. Unauthorised copying and sharing of software is referred to as software piracy. ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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C – Issues with Operating Online

Illegal File Sharing This means copying copyrighted data from the Internet, such as music, software, games, text, pictures, etc., and sharing it with other users without the copyright owner's permission. This is illegal and known as copyright infringement. This is an issue within the music, film and software industry which results in loss of revenue. Illegal downloads can also leave the user vulnerable to security threats.

Data Protection Act 1998 The Data Protection Act (DPA) protects personal data that is held on a computer. Personal information requested for setting up online accounts may include mandatory information (name, date of birth and address) and non-mandatory information, such as ethnic origin. All private and public organisations are legally obliged to protect personal information that they hold about customers by conforming to the rules set out in the Data Protection Act 1998. Personal information must be kept secure, must only be used for the intended purpose and must not be disclosed to third parties without the owner's consent. Personal information may be used by an organisation for the following purposes:  For membership records and to provide the services you have subscribed to  To identify you when you contact an organisation (to confirm some of your personal details)  To contact you  For statistical analysis and to monitor and improve services The Data Protection Act contains eight principles that affect the use of personal information: 1.

Fairly and lawfully process it

2.

Process it only for limited, specifically stated purposes

3.

Use the information in a way that is adequate, relevant and not excessive

4.

Use the information accurately

5.

Keep the information on file no longer than absolutely necessary

6.

Process the information in accordance with your legal rights

7.

Keep the information secure

8.

Never transfer the information outside the UK without adequate protection

! In July 2011 a university was found to be in breach of the DPA by failing to close a test area on its website which contained personal details, including names, addresses, dates of birth and mobile telephone numbers. ! In July 2011 a local police authority also breached the act when it accidentally published details of an individual's complaint on its website. ! In June 2011, former employees of a mobile phone company were fined £73,700 for stealing data and selling it.

Computer Misuse Act 1990 The Computer Misuse Act protects against malicious damage or unauthorised use of a computer system. It is an offence to: 

Gain unauthorised access to data



Gain unauthorised access to data with intent to commit a criminal offence



Make unauthorised modifications of data

ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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© ZigZag Education, 2014

Learning Aim C C – Issues with Operating Online Activity 1 – Le arning Aim C

Activity 1 Work out the answers to the questions below and write them in the relevant boxes to reveal a word in the shaded squares which is connected with this chapter.

1

1.

This law ensures that text, audio, video, music, song lyrics or images belonging to the owner (usually the creator/writer or publisher) cannot be copied without their consent. (9)

2.

This makes data incomprehensible but able to be decrypted by the receiver. (10)

3.

This is a name used to describe using inflammatory or bad language and being deliberately provocative on forums or chat rooms. (7)

4.

To ensure security when dealing with transactions over the Internet you can obtain a Digital _________________________ which will establish your credentials and ensure that information is encoded. (11)

5.

A type of network where computers are wirelessly networked together through use of a router but without any preventative security measures in place. (9)

6.

Someone who gains unauthorised access to a computer system. (6)

7.

A program that can spread from one computer to another and can cause damage through corruption and loss of data. (5)

8.

The name given to unsolicited or bulk mail. (4)

9.

The name given to the technique used in identity theft involving collection of personal details through fraudulent means. (8)

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

10. A shared network of computers using multiple IP addresses that can be used by members of the public to access information: __________________ Network. (6)

___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

11. Can prevent unauthorised access to a computer system and also be used to hide a user's IP address, therefore preventing them from being identified online. (8)

Answer to shaded squares – 6 and 6 letters.

ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

12. Software that secretly monitors a user's online activity by tracking keystrokes and other online activity. (7)

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© ZigZag Education, 2014

Learning Aim C C – Issues with Operating Online Activity 2 – Le arning Aim C

Activity 2 1.

Match each example on the left to the correct description on the right.

1. DPA 1998

2. Computer Misuse Act 1990

3. Software Piracy

2

a. protects against malicious damage or unauthorised use of a computer system

b. unauthorised copying and sharing of software

c. protects personal data that is held on a computer

Fill in the blanks below to complete the sentences:

a)

A _______________________ _____________________ is an example of removable storage that uses a USB port. (6, 5)

b)

A _______________ is a self-replicating virus that can be transferred via email. (4)

c)

A wireless connection that can be accessed in public places (hotspots) is called ________ - _______. (2-2)

d)

HTTPS in a URL indicates a _______________________ site. (6)

e)

To prevent unauthorised access, you should use a ________________________________ to log onto the system. (8)

f)

To ensure the confidentiality of an email address, enter it in the __________ field. (3)

g)

In order for customers to __________________________________________________ to receiving information and offers, reputable organisations will normally provide an opt-out link at the bottom of each email they send. (11)

ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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© ZigZag Education, 2014

Answers Learning Aim A – Practice Makes Perfect Communication Methods 1. Public 2. Avatar 3. Conferencing 4. VoIP Real-Time Information 1. Feeds 2. RSS Commerce 1. Online service 2. Auction

Business 1. Virtual

File Compression 1. Smaller

Entertainment 1. Copyright 2. Patches 3. Streaming

Controls 1. Weak 2. Read 3.Passwords

Online Advertisements 1. Affiliate 2. Cookie

Social Media 1. Wiki 2. Virtual 3. Podcasts 4. Vlogging

Online Software 1. Share 2. Hosted

Government 1. E-votes

Implications of Online communication 1. Online grooming Cloud Computing and Storage 1. Cloud 2. Latency 3. Bandwidth

Online Communities and Social Networks 1. Netiquette 2. Avatar 3. Public

Online Data Storage 1 Remote 2. Share

Education 1. Internet

Real-Time Communication 1. VoIP 2. Instant 3. Conferencing

Ubiquitous Computing 1. Frequency

Learning Aim A – Activity 1 1

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Learning Aim A – Activity 2 1.

1. c,

2.

a) b) c) d) e)

2. a,

3. b

Compressed Access Passwords Online Read-only

ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

f) g) h) i)

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Private Permissions Netiquette VoIP

© ZigZag Education, 2014

Learning Aim B – Practice Makes Perfect The Internet 1. Browser 2. Protocol

World Wide Web 1. Search engine 2. Protocol 3. World Wide Web 4. Mark-up 5. Server 6. Hyperlinks

Internet Service Providers 1. Service Internet Infrastructure 1. Access 2. Network Access Point

Email 1. Spam 2. Forward 3. Web based Alternative Transmission Methods 1. Fibre optic 2. Uplink

Data Exchange 1. Latency 2. Server side 3. Network

Internet Connections 1. Hotspots 2. Broadband 3. Dial-up

Data Storage 1. Programs 2. Removable 3. Access 4. Structured 5. Field 6. Records 7. Management

Transmission Modes 1. Serial 2. Bi-directional

Internet Protocols 1. Data transfer 2. Bandwidth

Sending Data 1. Router 2. Circuit

Learning Aim B – Activity 1 1

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Learning Aim B – Activity 2 1.

1. c,

2.

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h)

2. a,

3. b

Broadband Point of presence Access SMTP Access Protocol Serial Infrared Packet switching

ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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© ZigZag Education, 2014

Learning Aim C – Practice Makes Perfect Security Measures 1. Quarantine 2. Spyware 3. Trojan horse 4. Firewall 5. IP 6. Hacker 7. Access levels 8. PIN 9. Changed 10. Cipher

Email Security and Confidentiality 1. Application (executable) 2. Spam 3. Beacon 4. Link 5. Fake

Identity Theft 1. Phishing 2. PIN 3. Theft

Security Issues with Social Networking 1. Flaming 2. Permission

Legal Stuff 1. Computer Misuse 2. Data Protection 3. Software piracy

Appropriate Use of Data and Ereputations 1. Acceptable

Backing Up Data 1. Save 2. Memory stick

Privacy 1. Freedom 2. Blagging 3. Closed Circuit

Learning Aim C – Activity 1 1

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Learning Aim C – Activity 2 1.

1. c,

2. a,

2.

a) Memory stick b) Worm c) Wi-Fi d) Secure e) Password f) Bcc g) Unsubscribe

3. b

ICT Pearson BTEC First Unit 1 Learner Companion

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